Flashcards in Food Security Measurements Deck (50)
What is the take-home message behind food security measurements?
- There is no single instrument that can access food security as a whole
- We require more than one type
What is the central dimension of food security?
What are the static and dynamic dimensions that access food security?
- Physical access
- Economic access
What does availability measure?
- Average energy supply adequacy
- Average value of food production
- Share of dietary energy
- Average protein supply
What does physical access measure?
- Percentage of paved roads over total roads
- Road density
- Rail lines density
What does economic access measure?
Domestic food price index
What does utilization measure (in terms of a static and dynamic determinant)?
- Access to improved water sources
- Access to improved sanitation facilities
What does vulnerability measure?
- Cereal import dependency ratio
- Value of food imports over total merchandise exports
What do shocks measure?
- Political stability and absence of violence/terrorism
- Domestic food price volatility
Who is Dean Spears? What did he discover?
- British economist
- Discovered that 35% to 55% of stunting in India is caused by open air defecation
- Lots of parasites, which decrease nutrient absorption
What are the two outcomes that are measured?
What does access measure (in terms of an outcome)?
- Prevalence of undernourishment
- Share of food expenditure of the poor
- Depth of the food deficit
- Prevalence of food inadequacy
What does utilization measure (in terms of an outcome)?
- Percentage of children under 5 affected by wasting, stunting, underweight
- Percentage of adults who are underweight
- Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women/children
- Prevalence of vitamin A or iodine deficiency
How do you measure the percentage of children under 5 who are underweight?
- Ask parents for their birth date
What is stunting?
Height is below where it should be in a growth chart
What is wasting?
Weight is below where it should be on a growth chart
What is underweight?
Combination of the weight and height of the child
Differentiate what stunting and wasting indicate?
- Stunting: chronic undernutrition
- Wasting: acute undernutrition
What are the five methods to measure food security?
1. FAO Method: Food balance sheets
2. Household income and expenditure surveys
3. Adequacy of dietary intake
4. Child nutritional status
5. People's experience with food security
What is the FAO method of measuring food security?
Food balance sheets
How do you determine food security using food balance sheets?
- The quantity of food produced (in calories) - the quantity of food exported, utilized for livestock, and food wasted (in calories)
- Determination of the number of calories necessary for the population
- If 100 000 calories are needed, and only 50 000 calories are produced, then half of the country is food insecure
What is the limitation of food balance sheets?
- Does not take into account the nutritional quality (micronutrients) of the food
- Does not precise who has access to the food
What is SOFI?
- The last Food Balance Sheet report by the FAO in 2015
- State of Food Insecurity in the World
What is the adequacy of dietary intake?
- Usage of 24-hour recall questionnaires
- It takes 3 dietary recalls in order to perceive dietary patterns (includes a weekend day)
What is the limitation of dietary recalls?
- People's memory
- Nutrients that we don't consume very often require more than 10 dietary recalls
How do you measure child nutritional status?
Through anthropometric indicators
What questions are asked in questionnaires concerning people's experience with food security?
- "What does it mean to be hungry?"
- "Do you ever go to bed hungry?"
What is the questionnaire called to evaluate people's experience with food security?
Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)
What was the alternative definition of the minimum dietary energy intake? What was the problem in this measurement?
- Incorporation of physical activity
- FAO is not capable in calculating the energy requirement of everyone in the world; would take too much money