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Flashcards in Food Security Measurements Deck (50)
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What is the take-home message behind food security measurements?

- There is no single instrument that can access food security as a whole
- We require more than one type


What is the central dimension of food security?



What are the static and dynamic dimensions that access food security?

- Availability
- Physical access
- Economic access
- Utilization
- Vulnerability
- Shocks


What does availability measure?

- Average energy supply adequacy
- Average value of food production
- Share of dietary energy
- Average protein supply


What does physical access measure?

- Percentage of paved roads over total roads
- Road density
- Rail lines density


What does economic access measure?

Domestic food price index


What does utilization measure (in terms of a static and dynamic determinant)?

- Access to improved water sources
- Access to improved sanitation facilities


What does vulnerability measure?

- Cereal import dependency ratio
- Value of food imports over total merchandise exports


What do shocks measure?

- Political stability and absence of violence/terrorism
- Domestic food price volatility


Who is Dean Spears? What did he discover?

- British economist
- Discovered that 35% to 55% of stunting in India is caused by open air defecation
- Lots of parasites, which decrease nutrient absorption


What are the two outcomes that are measured?

- Access
- Utilization


What does access measure (in terms of an outcome)?

- Prevalence of undernourishment
- Share of food expenditure of the poor
- Depth of the food deficit
- Prevalence of food inadequacy


What does utilization measure (in terms of an outcome)?

- Percentage of children under 5 affected by wasting, stunting, underweight
- Percentage of adults who are underweight
- Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women/children
- Prevalence of vitamin A or iodine deficiency


How do you measure the percentage of children under 5 who are underweight?

- Height
- Weight
- Ask parents for their birth date
- Sex


What is stunting?

Height is below where it should be in a growth chart


What is wasting?

Weight is below where it should be on a growth chart


What is underweight?

Combination of the weight and height of the child


Differentiate what stunting and wasting indicate?

- Stunting: chronic undernutrition
- Wasting: acute undernutrition


What are the five methods to measure food security?

1. FAO Method: Food balance sheets
2. Household income and expenditure surveys
3. Adequacy of dietary intake
4. Child nutritional status
5. People's experience with food security


What is the FAO method of measuring food security?

Food balance sheets


How do you determine food security using food balance sheets?

- The quantity of food produced (in calories) - the quantity of food exported, utilized for livestock, and food wasted (in calories)
- Determination of the number of calories necessary for the population
- If 100 000 calories are needed, and only 50 000 calories are produced, then half of the country is food insecure


What is the limitation of food balance sheets?

- Does not take into account the nutritional quality (micronutrients) of the food
- Does not precise who has access to the food


What is SOFI?

- The last Food Balance Sheet report by the FAO in 2015
- State of Food Insecurity in the World


What is the adequacy of dietary intake?

- Usage of 24-hour recall questionnaires
- It takes 3 dietary recalls in order to perceive dietary patterns (includes a weekend day)


What is the limitation of dietary recalls?

- People's memory
- Time-consuming
- Nutrients that we don't consume very often require more than 10 dietary recalls


How do you measure child nutritional status?

Through anthropometric indicators


What questions are asked in questionnaires concerning people's experience with food security?

- "What does it mean to be hungry?"
- "Do you ever go to bed hungry?"


What is the questionnaire called to evaluate people's experience with food security?

Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)


What was the alternative definition of the minimum dietary energy intake? What was the problem in this measurement?

- Incorporation of physical activity
- FAO is not capable in calculating the energy requirement of everyone in the world; would take too much money


How does FAO calculate the minimum dietary energy requirement as of 2012?

- They calculate the minimum requirement for SEDENTARY people
- Thus, we are underestimating the requirement since not everyone is sedentary