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Flashcards in Developmental Psych/Child Deck (81)
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Causes of psych disorders

-Genetics: Family Hx of MH issues
-Environmental factors: stressors, family/social life, abuse, pregnancy (prenatal care, mother's mental health)
-Medical Treatments/Medical Problems


Still Face Experiment

-Shows infants can engage in social interaction
-1 year old baby and mom "talking", pointing, engaging, working to coordinate their emotions
-Mother doesn't respond, gives still face for 2 minutes, baby uses all skills to try and get her attention and get her to engage. Baby cries and becomes distressed when mom doesn't respond


Piaget's Cognitive Development Model outline

Sensorimotor (0-2)
Pre-operational (2-7)
Concrete Operational (7-11)
Formal Operational (11-15)


Sensorimotor Stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development Model

-Rapid cognitive growth
-Most action is reflexive
*Perception of events are centered on the body
-Objects are an extension of self, extreme egocentrism
*Trial and error learning
*OBJECT PERMANENCE at 8-9 months


Object Permanece definition

-knowing that an object still exists even if it's hidden
-it requires the ability to form a mental representation (schema) of the object
-Happens at 8-9 mo


Smiling and cooing begins at

2 months


Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety starts at

6-8 months


Transitional Objects

-Objects that help a young child make the emotional transition from dependence to independence from mom (blanket)
-6-18 months



-15 to 24 months
-The child moves away from and the returns to the mother for reassurance


Separation Anxiety

-usually ends around 2 yrs


Object constancy

-2-3 years
-It takes time, and experience of the reliability of the key people in their world, for them to develop a sense that when Mommy leaves the room, she's still on the same planet, and will reappear again.


Pre-operational Stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development Model

-Age 2-7
*increase in pretend play
*still egocentric
-symbolic play and manipulating symbols
-able to form stable concepts as well as magical beliefs
-still not able to perform operations, which are tasks that the child can do mentally, rather than physically


2 substages of Pre-operational Stage

1. Symbolic function substage: able to understand, represent, remember, and picture objects i their mind without having the object in front of them
2. Intuitive thought substage: tend to propose the questions of "why?" and "how come?" This strange is when children want the knowledge of knowing everything


Example of egocentrism

having or regarding the self or the individual as the center of all things
-example of child recalling objects in volcano scene from his own perspective


Magical thinking

-Age 2-7 yrs
-Child's belief that what he or she wishes or expects can affect what really happens


Examples of Conservation

-picture in slide
-How many coins are there? (spread coins out) Now how many coins are there?
-Which ball has more clay? (roll one ball out) Now which shape has more clay?


Concrete operational Stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development Model

-age 7-11 years old
*appropriate use of logic
*elimination of egocentrism
-thought process becomes more mature
-they start solving problems in a more logical fashion
-abstract, hypothetical thinking is not yet developed int he child
-child understands that death is irreversible around age 7


Formal operational Stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development Model

-Age 11 to 15
-Abstract thoughts
-Problem solving


Erikson's Psychosocial Stages

-Trust vs Mistrust (Birth-2)
-Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (1 1⁄2 - 3)
-Initiative vs Guilt (3-6)
-Industry vs Inferiority (7-11)
-Identity vs Role Confusion (12-18
-Intimacy vs Isolation (18-40)
-Generativity and Stagnation (40-65)
-Integrity vs. Despair (>65)


Erikson's Psychosocial Stages: Trust vs Mistrust

-Birth to 2
-Infant forms trust that others will provide care for basic needs, or lack confidence in others


Erikson's Psychosocial Stages: Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt

-1.5 to 3 yrs
-Infant becomes self-sufficient in many activities (walking, toileting, feeding, talking), or they may have doubts about their abilities


Erikson's Psychosocial Stages: Initiative versus Guilt

-Age 3 to 6
-More assertive and taking more initiative, but may be too forceful, leading to guilt feelings (disapproval from parents if they try to exert too much power)


Erikson's Psychosocial Stages: Industry versus Inferiority

-Age 7 to 11
-children have to cope with new social and academic demands; success leads to competence and failure leads to inferiority


Erikson's Psychosocial Stages:
Identity versus Role Confusion

-Ages 12-18
-Teens need to develop a sense of self and personality identity; Success leads you to be true to yourself whereas failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self


Erikson's Psychosocial Stages:
Intimacy versus Isolation

-Ages 18-40
-Young adults seek companionship and love with another person or become isolated from others by fearing rejection and disappointment


Erikson's Psychosocial Stages:
Generativity and Stagnation

-Ages 40-65
-Middle-age adults contribute to the next generation by performing meaning work, creative activities, and/or raising family, or become stagnant and inactive


Erikson's Psychosocial Stages:
Integrity vs. Despair

-Over 65 years old
-older adults try to make sense of their lives, whether seeing life as a meaningful whole or despairing at goals never reached and questions never answered


Freudian Psychosexual Stages Personality and Iceberg Theory

Id: unconscious urges to obtain pleasure (bottom of iceberg)
Ego: mediates the demands of the id, the superego and reality (tip of iceberg)
Superego: how to behave based on learned morals and values.(middle part of iceberg, half in half out)


Freudian Psychosexual Stages

-Oral Stage (Birth – 1 1⁄2)
-Anal Stage (1 1⁄2 - 3)
-Phallic Stage (3-6)
-Latency (7-11)
-Genital Stage (12-18)


Freudian Psychosexual Stages: Oral Stage

-Birth to 1.5
-the mouth, tongue and gums are the focus of pleasurable sensations in the baby’s body, and feeding is the most stimulating activity