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Flashcards in Hormonal Cycle Deck (54)
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1
Q
Ages of menarche and menopause
A
12.5
51
2
Q
At birth females have 1 million primordial follicles. They oocytes are arrested in _______
A
prophase of the first meiotic division until menarche
3
Q
The hypothalamus secretes ________ from the _________ in a ________ manner.
A
GnRH from the arcuate nucleus in a pulsatile manner (every 70-90 minutes)
4
Q
GnRH stimulates the ________ to release ________
A
anterior pituitary to release FHS and LH (gonadotropins)
5
Q
TSH acts at
A
thyroid gland

released from ant pit
6
Q
ACTH acts at
A
adrenal cortex

released from ant pit
7
Q
TSH and LH act at
A
testes and ovaries

released from ant pit
8
Q
GH acts at
A
entire body

released from ant pit
9
Q
PRL (prolactin) acts at
A
mammary glands

released from ant pit
10
Q
endorphins act on
A
pain receptors in brain

released from ant pit
11
Q
LH stimulates ______, which causes _________
A
1. LH stimulates theca cells of ovary to produce androgens
2. Androgens to to granulosa cell of ovary and are converted to estrogen by aromatase
12
Q
FSH stimulates _______ which causes ________
A
1. FSH stimulates granulosa cells to convert androgens (coming from the thecal cells) to estrogen by aromatase during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle
13
Q
Estradiol (estrogen) has a negative feedback on ______ and a positive feedback on ______
A
negative fb on GnRH and FSH/LH most of the cycle, but a positive fb on GnRH/FSH/LH for days 12-14 (high estrogen levels during this time)
14
Q
So basically granulosa cells of ovary produce ______ and theca cells produce _______
A
estradiol
androgen
15
Q
Estrogen provides _________ to hypothalamus and anterior pituitary for most of the cycle, but ________ for days 12-14
A
negative fb for most

positive fb for days 12-14
(the positive fb of estrogen is mostly acting on LH)
16
Q
In order for FSH and LH to be released, you need ________
A
a PULSATILE release of GnRH
17
Q
LH acts on 2 places in the ovary (and why)
A
1. growing follicle (for ovulation and to produce estrogen, this mid-cycle increase of estrogen will stimulate more LH secretion, positive FB)

2. corpus luteum (which secretes progesterone and estrogen after ovulation to inhibit FSH and LH secretion)
18
Q
Phases of menstrual cycle
A
follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase
19
Q
Day 1 of follicular phase:
A
-First day of bleeding
-progesterone withdrawal is happening (causes period bleeding)
-Prostaglandins are released--> causes contractions of uterus
--> ischemic pain (cramping)
-hormones are all at their LOWEST points on day 1
-this causes at DECREASE in the negative feedback, resulting in FSH production
20
Q
FSH production on day 1 of follicular phase causes
A
-new follicles to mature
-dominant follicle to be selected
-granulosa cells increase and secrete estradiol
21
Q
Follicular phase- Estradiol acts at the LH receptors on
A
theca cells, cause androgen secretion, which are converted to more estradiol by aromatase
22
Q
Follicular phase- Rising estradiol causes an INCREASE in negative feedback at the hypothalamus, which will _______
A
decrease FSH and increase LH
23
Q
Determining Dominant Follicle- FSH binds to receptors on the granulosa cells, causing ______
A
proliferation of cells --> more binding of FSH --> more estradiol produced
24
Q
Determining Dominant Follicle- The follicle with the ________ becomes the dominant follicle, and then OVULATION HAPPENS!
A
greatest # of granolas cells

(this is the best follicle- has the most estrogen production, greatest number of granulosa cells)
25
Q
The ONLY FOLLICLE that ovulates is _________
A
the dominant follicle
26
Q
Ovulation- estradiol produced causes
A
a positive feedback at hypothalamus causing an increase in LH
27
Q
_________ happens around days 11-13 of cycle
A
LH Surge
28
Q
Ovulation starts ______ AFTER the LH surge
A
30-36 hours

-so ovulation happens around day 14 of cycle
29
Q
During ovulation what physically happen to oocyte?
A
oocyte is expelled from follicle into fallopian tube, and the follicle becomes the corpus luteum (follicle without egg in it anymore is corpus luteum)
30
Q
Luteal phase of menstrual cycle is ________ dominant
A
progesterone dominant (bc the progesterone is coming from the corpus luteum)
31
Q
Luteal phase- Maximum production of progesterone happens _________
A
3-4 days after ovulation (and lasts 11 days)
32
Q
Luteal phase- If there is NO implantation, _______
A
involution of the corpus lute occurs (takes 13-14 days), and there is a DECREASE in progesterone

(decrease in progesterone, no negative fb, this increases FSH and LH, start producing estradiol, get your period)
33
Q
Luteal phase- if there IS implantation, _________
A
hCG is secreted from corpus luteum, this maintains the CL and there is CONTINUED progesterone secretion

(progesterone prevents your period)
34
Q
During the Luteal phase, progesterone provides __________
A
a NEGATIVE feedback for FSH and LH
35
Q
Timeline if follicular phase
A
CAN VARY

overall cycle is about 28 days
36
Q
Timeline of luteal phase
A
ALWAYS 14 DAYS!!!
37
Q
What causes ovulation?
A
LH surge
38
Q
What causes follicle growth?
A
estradiol
39
Q
What causes estradiol to increase?
A
FSH
40
Q
Negative fb from estradiol causes
A
decline in FSH
41
Q
What forms during ovulation?
A
corpus luteum
42
Q
When progesterone stops being produced, what happens?
A
withdrawal phase- menses
43
Q
During menstruation, endometrium is __________
A
sloghed to basal level (bleeding happens bc progesterone withdrawal)
-compact stroma cells
-short, narrow endometrial glands
44
Q
During the follicular phase, what happens to endometrium?
A
-Estrogen causes growth of the endometrium
-stroma thickens
-glands elongate and are straight/tubular
-endometrium is proliferative and growing
45
Q
What progesterone is released during luteal phase, what happens to endometrium?
A
-Differentiation
-Stroma becomes loose and edematous
-blood vessels twist and thicken (spiral arterioles)
-glands become tortuous
-it's called a "secretory endometrium" and it's getting ready to support a pregnancy
46
Q
How does Estradiol alter the endocervix and cervical mucus?
A
*causes sperm capture, storage and transport
-thin
-clear
-water
-conducive to preparing for pregnancy
47
Q
How does Progesterone alter the endocervix and cervical mucus?
A
-thick (prevents sperm)
-opaque
-tenacious
-conducive to
48
Q
How does progesterone affect the breasts?
A
-stimulates acinar glands
-rounds them
-increased tenderness
49
Q
How does progesterone affect body temperature?
A
increases body temp by
0.6-1 degree F
50
Q
Leuoprolide
A
*acts at hypothalamus
-hormonal control
-takes 2 weeks to decrease FSH/LH
-GnRH agonist
-when continuous, decreases pulsate GnRH release
-decrease initial surge of FSH/LH-can only use for 3-6 months, puts pt into "early menopause"
51
Q
Ganirelix
A
*acts at hypothalamus
-immediately decreases FSH/LH
-GnRH antagonist
52
Q
Clomiphene citrate
A
*acts at hypothalamus
*Causes ovulation
-can make someone ovulate, for someone with PCOS who is ovulating irregularly- can have multiple dominant follicles, twins/triplets
-Antagonist of estrogen at hypothalamus
-Increases LH/FSH release
53
Q
Combination oral contraceptives
A
*acts at ovary
-Progestin: suppression of LH secretion= no ovulation
-Thicken cervical mucus
and altered fallopian tube peristalsis

-Estrogen: suppression of FHS secretion= no dominant follicle (won’t be able to ovulate)
54
Q
Progestins
A
*acts at ovary
*Depo-Provera
*Nexplanon
-Thicken cervical mucus
-Alters endometrial proliferation (“hostile” environment)
-Some suppress ovulation (if high enough dose)