Lipids Flashcards Preview

CSI- Winter > Lipids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lipids Deck (50)
Loading flashcards...
1

If patient has VERY high triglycerides- they’re “vasculopaths”, meaning

all arteries are filled with plaques, have xanthomas, ocular effects

2

With known cardiovascular disease, _________ leads to a consistent reduction in total mortality and recurrent cardiovascular events in men and women

cholesterol lowering

3

The two main lipids in blood are ________, carried in lipoproteins.

cholesterol and triglyceride

4

Classification of lipoproteins

High-density lipoproteins (HDL)
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL)

5

Chylomicrons are made in ______ and travel via the _____ into the liver and via the ________ into the circulation.
Normally completely metabolized, transferring energy from food into muscle and fat cells.

the gut

portal vein

thoracic duct

6

The plaques in the arterial walls of patients with atherosclerosis contain large amounts of cholesterol, the higher the level of______, the greater the risk of atherosclerotic heart disease

low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol

7

The higher the ________, the lower the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)

high-density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol

8

High total cholesterol levels are also associated with an increased risk of

CHD (coronary heart disease)

9

Arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease requires treatment of

high to moderate intensity statin

10

LDL-C at or over 190 requires

High intensity statin

11

Goal for diabetics is to have LDL of

less than 70
(LDL of 60 is ideal)

12

Treatment for diabetics is

moderate intensity statin, unless they have a ASCVD risk of over 7.5%, then use a high intensity statin

13

Composition of cholesterol may be more important than just total cholesterol number
-Discrepancies on how to screen (athletes vs regular people)
Equation for calculating total cholesterol:

HDL + VLDL + LDL

14

Equation for VLDL cholesterol

Triglycerides / 5

15

Equation for LDL cholesterol

Total cholesterol - HDL - (Triglycerides / 5)

16

Familial hypercholesterolemia is
rare in the homozygous state (about one per million) is a condition in which ________

the cell-surface receptors for the LDL molecule are absent or defective, resulting in unregulated synthesis of LDL

17

Familial hypercholesterolemia- Homozygotes have extremely high LDL levels present with ___________

atherosclerotic disease in childhood

18

Familial hypercholesterolemia- ***Heterozygotes have LDL concentrations _________; persons with this condition may develop _________***

twice normal

CHD in their 30s or 40s

19

Familial hyperchylomicronemia-

notes say NOT on exam

Have marked hypertriglyceridemia with recurrent pancreatitis and hepatosplenomegaly in childhood

20

Factors that increase triglycerides and total cholesterol

1. obesity (decreases HDL)
2. sedentary lifestyle (decreases HDL only)
3. DM
4. hypothyroidism
5. nephrotic syndrome
6. chronic kidney disease
7. obstructive liver disease
8. Cushing disease (corticosteroid use)
9. oral contraceptives
10. diuretics
11. beta blockers (decrease HDL)

21

Factors the decrease total cholesterol

1. cirrhosis
2. malignancy

22

Alcohol use and cholesterol

controversial (1-2 glasses of wine increases HDL)
-may increase triglycerides

23

What will increase HDL?

ACTIVITY

24

How do most patients with high cholesterol present

Most patients with high cholesterol levels have no specific symptoms or signs
Most are detected by the laboratory, either as part of the workup of a patient with cardiovascular disease or as part of a preventive screening strategy.

25

Eruptive xanthomas

-Red-yellow papules (especially on the buttocks)
-Extremely high levels of chylomicrons or VLDL particles

26

Tendinous xanthomas

-On certain tendons (achilles, patella, back of the hand)
-High LDL concentrations
-On biopsy- may look like squamous cell carcinoma

27

Lipemia retinalis

-Cream-colored blood vessels (in the fundus)
-Extremely high triglyceride levels

28

KNOW PICTURES OF XANTHOMAS

WILL BE ON EXAM

29

Who should have their lipids measured?

All patients with cardiovascular disease and diabetes should have their lipids measured (ALWAYS TRUE- EXAM)

A complete lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels) after an overnight fast should be obtained

30

LDL cholesterol greater than_____ are recommended for treatment independent of their 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease, all other patients are recommended for treatment based on their overall cardiovascular risk.

190 mg/dL