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Flashcards in Psychosis Deck (34)
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1

Delusions

False or erroneous beliefs, misinterpretation of perceptions or experiences

2

Ideas of Reference

describe the phenomenon of an individual's experiencing innocuous events or mere coincidences and believing they have strong personal significance

3

Paranoid Delusions

is the fixed, false belief that one is being harmed or persecuted by a particular person or group of people.

4

Cotard Delusion

false belief that one does not exist or has died

5

Thought Insertion

idea that another thinks through the mind of the person (another person)

6

Thought Broadcasting

is the belief that others can hear or are aware of an individual's thoughts

7

Hallucinations

-perception-like experiences that occur without an external stimulus
-auditory (most common), visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile
-perceived as distinct from the person’s own thoughts

8

Positive Symptoms

-Hallucinations
-Delusions
-Disorganized Thinking
-Grossly Disorganized Behavior

9

Negative Symptoms

-Negligible response to conventional antipsychotics
-Eye contact is decreased
-Grooming and hygiene is decline
-Affective responses become flat
-Thought blocking
-Inattentiveness
-Avolition
-Expressive gestures decrease
-Time – increases the number of negative symptoms
-Recreational interests diminish; relationships decrease
-A’s absence/lack of certain features (5 A’s)
-Content of speech diminishes (poverty of thought)
-Knowledge – cognitive deficits decrease

10

Negative Symptoms also include a lack of the 5 A's

aPathy/avolition
aLogia
Affective flattening
aNhedonia
aTtentional impairment

11

Brain feature of psychotic disorder

larger than normal lateral ventricles

12

Genetics of Psychotic disorder

-Monozygotic twins to develop schizophrenia is between 30-50%.
-Dizygotic twins to develop schizophrenia is about 15%.
-Siblings who are not twins is also about 15%.

13

Environment and psychotic disorder

-family stress, poor social interactions, infections or viruses at an early age, or trauma at an early age.
-season of birth has been linked to the incidence of schizophrenia, including late winter/early spring in some locations

14

The "dopamine theory of schizophrenia" states that schizophrenia is caused by

an overactive dopamine system in the brain

-Drugs that block dopamine reduce schizophrenic symptoms

15

The best drugs to treat schizophrenia

resemble dopamine and completely block dopamine receptors

16

High doses of amphetamines cause

schizophrenic-like symptoms in a disorder called "amphetamine psychosis." Amphetamine psychosis is a model for schizophrenia because drugs that block amphetamine psychosis also reduce schizophrenic symptoms. **Amphetamines also make the symptoms of schizophrenia worse.

17

Children at risk for schizophrenia may have brain wave patterns similar to

adults with schizophrenia.

-These abnormal brain wave patterns in children can be reduced by drugs that block dopamine receptors

18

Other weird things that are linked to psychotic disorders

-hypoxia
-greater paternal age
-stress, infection, malnutrition, maternal diabetes, and other medical conditions

-However, the vast majority of offspring with these risk factors do not develop schizophrenia

19

Brief Psychotic Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

Presence of 1+ of the following symptoms (1 must be 1 of the first 3 listed)

1. Delusions.
2. Hallucinations.
3. Disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence)
4. Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior

*Duration of an episode of the disturbance is at least 1 day but less than 1 month

-2x more common in females

20

Schizophreniform Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

2+ of the following, for significant portion of time for at least 1-month but less than 6 months:
-At least 1 of these must be 1, 2 or 3:
1. Delusions
2. Hallucinations
3. Disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence).
4. Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior.
5. Negative symptoms (i.e., diminished emotional expression or avolition)

21

About 1/3 of people with Schizophreniform Disorder usually recover within

6 months

-schizophreniform disorder is their final diagnosis
-The majority of the remaining 2/3 of individuals will eventually receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder

22

Schizophrenia Diagnostic Criteria

-2+ of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period
-At least one of these must be (1), (2), or (3):

1. Delusions.
2. Hallucinations.
3. Disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence).
4. Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior.
5. Negative symptoms (i.e., diminished emotional expression or avolition)

*Level of functioning in one or more major areas, such as work, interpersonal relations, or self-care, is markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset
***Continuous signs of the disturbance persist for at least 6 months***

23

Schizoaffective Disorder

-An uninterrupted period of illness during which there is a major mood episode (major depressive or manic) concurrent with schizophrenia symptoms

-Delusions or hallucinations for 2+ weeks in the absence of a major mood episode (depressive or manic) during the lifetime duration of the illness.

-patient meets criteria for a major mood episode for total duration of illness

-The disturbance is not attributable to the effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or another medical condition.

24

2 types of Schizoaffective Disorder

-Bipolar type: manic episodes and major depressive episodes

-Depressive type: only major depressive episodes

25

Delusional Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

-The presence of 1+ delusions with a duration of 1 month or longer
-Criterion for schizophrenia has never been met
-Note: Hallucinations, if present, are not prominent and are related to the delusional theme (e.g., the sensation of being infested with insects associated with delusions of infestation).
**functioning is NOT markedly impaired, and behavior is not obviously bizarre or odd**
-If manic or major depressive episodes have occurred, these have been brief relative to the duration of the delusional periods
-disturbance is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or another medical condition and is not better explained by another mental disorder, such as body dysmorphic disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder.

26

Erotomanic type of DD

applies when the central theme of the delusion is that another person is in love with the individual

27

Grandiose type of DD

applies when the central theme of the delusion is the conviction of having some great (but unrecognized) talent or insight or having made some important discovery

28

Jealous type of DD

applies when the central theme of the individual’s delusion is that his or her spouse or lover is unfaithful

-males

29

Persecutory type of DD

applies when the central theme of the delusion involves the individual’s belief that he or she is being conspired against, cheated, spied on, followed, poisoned or drugged, maliciously maligned, harassed, or obstructed in the pursuit of long-term goals.

*MOST COMMON TYPE!*

30

Somatic type of DD

applies when the central theme of the delusion involves bodily functions or sensations