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Flashcards in Developmental Valve Deck (25):
1

Types of Developmental Abnormalities in valves that might not be recognized in the neonatal / childhood period

1. Hypoplastic valve
2. Unicuspid aortic valve
3. Bicuspid aortic valve

2

1. Hypoplastic valve
2. Unicuspid aortic valve
3. Bicuspid aortic valve
Problems?

1. Reduced outflow, leading to ventricular hypertrophy

2. Increased turbulence, leading to valve thickening and stenosis

3

Bicuspid Aortic Valve is relatively common, and is cause ______

when two of the aortic leaflets fuse

4

Bicuspid Aortic Valve appearance (congenital)

thich
calcified

5

Acquired Diseases of valves

Degenerative - "Toxic-Metabolic" / Developmental / Traumatic

1.Stenosis and/or
2.Regurgitation/Insufficiency

6

The ________ valves are the predominant valves involved in Acquired Diseases of valves

aortic and mitral

(higher pressure)

7

Acquired Diseases of valves- The abnormal valves show increased susceptibility to:

1. Nodular calcification and fibrosis
2. Vegetation formation
3. Infection

8

Rheumatic heart disease tends to affects:

Mitral and Aortic valve

9

Marfrans tend to have

dilated aortic root which can lead to regurg

10

Mitral Valve Prolapse

- Ballooning
- Tenting
- Myxomatous degeneration
- Hooding
(aka Myxomatous degeneration)

11

Most common cause of isolated mitral regurgitation (occurs in ~5% of
the population)

MItral Prolapse

12

Rheumatic Fever

Group A Streptococcus (Strep. pyogenes)

Antibodies against M protein cross rxn w/ glycoproteins

13

Criteria for Diagnosis of Rheumatic Fever

Jones Criteria

J- joint
o- Sydenham chorea” CNS

14

Chronic effects of myocardial damage

endocardium
myocardium
pericardium

15

Rheumatic Fever affects ________ valves

mitral and aortic valves

16

inflammation of endocardium / valves and eventual
fibrosis

Mitral Valve (65-75% of cases)
Aortic Valve w/ MV (25% of cases)

Endocarditis (RF)

17

Endocarditis Rheumatic Heart Disease Complications:

Valves can’t open (stenosis) or close (regurgitation)
normally … can progress to heart failure
- Susceptibility to infective endocarditis

18

Rheumatic changes of Mitral Valve

a. Valve Leaflets and Cusps: fibrosis, fusion, calcification

b. Chordae Tendinea: fibrosis, fusion, and shortening

19

Acquired Diseases: Vegetations of Valve

Sterile / Marantic / Non-Bacterial Thrombotic
Endocarditis

Infective Endocarditis

20

Primary infection of normal valve or damaged valve

Infective Endocarditis

Blood culture key in attempt to identify causative organism (the organism is not identified in some cases)

21

Normal Valves are more commonly infected by:

virulent organisms
(i.e., Staph aureus)

22

Risk/Cause for Endocarditis

- Dental procedures
- Surgical procedures
- Venous access for IV drug abuse

-

23

Highly virulent organisms (Staph aureus), which can destroy the valve leaflets resulting in :

perforation and incompetence with acute onset congestive heart failure
- Can infect normal and abnormal valves

24

Endocarditis often leads to

emboli (septic or blood clot)

25

Do vegetations require an organism?

No