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Flashcards in Valvular Heart Disease (and hypertension) Deck (18):
1

Hypertension

Systemic Hypertension: BP >140/90

2

Hypertension
Essential (1º) - "90%"
is _________

Idiopathic
--> Rule out other possible causes (medication, etc.)

3

Hypertension Secondary

1.Renal disease (i.e., diabetes, renal artery stenosis)

2.Endocrine (i.e., adrenal neoplasm, steroid medication)

3.Cardiovascular: e.g. coarctation

4

Sustained pressure overload on the left ventricle leads to ________ hypertrophy of myofibers

concentric


Additional sarcomeres / myofibrils added to existing cardiomyocytes

5

Causes of Myocyte Hypertrophy

HTN
Valve Disease
MI
--> hypertrophy--> cardiac dysfx

6

Hypertrophy: Microscopic Evaluation

-box car nuclei
- Same number of myocytes
- Increased number of sarcomeres

7

Systemic Hypertension – Left Ventricle

. Often silent … so treatment doesn't effect noticeable change for most individuals

Can manifest with headache, dizziness

8

Systemic Hypertension – Left Ventricle Complications

1. Atherosclerosis/aneurysm
2. Cerebral vascular disease
( Ischemic)
3. Kidney- (Glomerulosclerosis)
4. CHF (pulmonary edema, RHF)

9

_________ Key cause of "chronic renal disease"; often along with diabetic renal disease

Kidney response to HTN

a. Arteriolosclerosis
b. Glomerulosclerosis

10

Pulmonary Hypertension – Right Ventricle

- Hypertrophy
- Dilation

11

Pulmonary
Hypertension

high blood pressure that affects the arteries in the lungs and the right side of your heart.

pulmonary arteries become narrowed. This makes it harder for blood to flow through your lungs, and raises pressure within your lungs' arteries

12

Right Heart Failure leads to _____ in the gut

“Passive” Congestion of Liver

13

Right heart failure will have

ascites,
lower leg edema
Centrilobular Congestion
“Nutmeg Liver”

14

Valves of the heart

mitral/tricuspid (with chordae and pap muscles)
Pulm/Aortic

15

Findings of Mitral Stenosis

Enlarger LA
Thick mitral leafs

16

Findings of Mitral Regur

Enlarged LA/LV (chronic)
Systolic flow from LV into LA by doppler

17

Findings of Aortic Stenosis

Thick a valve
decreased opening
Increased LV wall size

18

Findings of Aortic regurg

Enlarged LV
abnormal aortic valve and root