Devo Lect 16 - Regeneration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Devo Lect 16 - Regeneration Deck (15):
2

Which animals can regenerate body parts?

Simpler organisms are the best, hydra, flatworms etc; some crabs and insects can regenerate limbs; mammals and birds hardly at all

3

What are the 4 types of regeneration?

Stem cell mediated regeneration (normal), morphallaxis, epimorphosis, compensatory regeneration

4

Regeneration vs healing

Compare muscle and liver. Muscle doesn’t have significant regeneration (fibrotic scar), but liver can fully regrow.

5

Stem cell mediated regeneration

Ex. blood stem cells, constantly regeneration; natural, not high level; also skin, depends on amount of damage (stem cells can die, can’t grow that fast)

6

Morphallaxis

Hydra and planaria; can form two organisms from two halves; have neoblasts

7

Neoblasts

Used in morphallaxis; Undifferentiated cells spread throughout organism, no apparent function except in wound, migrate to wound site, reform parts of body, totipotent, only need a few

8

Epimorphosis

Stem cells need but not present right away; dedifferentiation

9

Blastema

Develops after initial wound healing; cells turn off differentiated genes and become dedifferentiated, start to grow out and redifferentiate

10

Are blastema cells pluripotent or multipotent?

Chimera study with GFP in cartilage; gave rise to only GFP+ muscle; cells had a “memory” of what they were, therefore multipotent

11

Compensatory Regeneration

Happens in mammalian liver; mostly hepatocytes, proliferate quickly (not normally dividing much)

12

Live liver donor

You can donate 55-70% of your liver and it will grow back in both people in a few months

13

Heart regeneration

In response to damage (overworked, heart attack); in humans, cells grow bigger to compensate for dying cells but not as good; scarring occurs if cut too

14

Zebrafish heart regeneration

First undergoes wound formation, then proliferation, then wound healing; more so compensatory, no blastema formation!

15

BrdU

Bromodioxy uridine; Analog of uracil, incorporated into cells during S phase, shows that cells are dividing

16

How can we stimulate regeneration of human heart?

Need to get cells to proliferate (GFs and receptors)