Devo Lect 6 - Cleavage Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Devo Lect 6 - Cleavage Deck (21):
1

Blastomeres

“sprouting part” - name after zygote divides

2

Cell divisions and cycle

Stored proteins, mRNA; Cell cycle - M, S, M, S (fast!) - get smaller

3

Patterns of cleavage

Holoblastic (“entire sprouting” - cell division in whole organism) and Meroblastic (“part sprouting” - incomplete cell division)

4

Holoblastic cleavage subtypes*

Isolecithal “equal amounts of yolk” (radial - echinoderms; spiral - annelids, molluscs; rotational - humans, nematodes) and Mesolecithal “moderate amounts of yolk” (amphibians)

5

Meroblastic cleavage subtypes*

Telolecithal “yolk more on one side” (bilateral - cephalopod; discoidal - fish, reptiles, birds) and centrolecithal “yolk in middle” (superficial - insects)

6

Sea urchin cleavage

isolecithal - synchronous, radial (divides x, y then z); cells get smaller; divides to form Blastula larva: hollow sphere containing water and salts in blastocoel - higher osmotic pressure draws in water - SA/V ratio increases

7

Blastocoel

Hollow space inside developing sea urchin embryo containing solutes and draws in water; space where organs will develop

8

Importance and differences of mesolecithal cleavage

It has more yolk, so the frog embryo can divide and grow longer in the egg; still synchronous, radial; blastocoel is smaller; unequal sizes, smaller ones around blastocoel (animal pole)

9

Formation of gray crescent in amphibians

Caused by cytoplasm movement (microtubules); first cell division bisects gray crescent

10

Hans Spemann experiment

Took a human hair and put it around an amphibian egg along the axis of the first division and separated them, developed into two embryos; second time split with gray crescent on only one side, one developed normal, the other was a ball. Asymmetry of the fertilized egg!

11

Spiral holoblastic cleavage

Some worms, most molluscs, snails. Blastomeres divide at angles, cause a spiral. Can be left (sinistral) or right handed (dextral)! No blastocoel = stereoblastula

12

Nodal

Molecule that determines left/right symmetry in development

13

Rotational holoblastic cleavage

Mammals; little yolk because it will implant and gain nutrients

14

Why hard to study human cleavage?

Small eggs; fewer eggs; internal development (but can be done in dish)

15

Differences between mammalian and sea urchin/amphibian frogs

Very slow cleavage (24h vs 30 mins), still have G1 and G2; first division same, second one different (one in Z plane, one in Y); asynchronous; zygotic transcription happens early; compaction

16

Compaction

In mammals; Occurs around 8 cell stage; connections change between them so it looks like they squish together (via cell adhesion molecules); communication (gap junctions) increases;

17

Mammalian cleavage - where

Cleavage occur in oviduct and uterus. Ovary isn’t completely attached to oviduct btw;

18

Explain fig 11.20! Ovulation to implantation**

Ovulation (FSH); release egg and follicular fluid (Rantes, progesterone); sperm translocation; slow in isthmus (cilia); capacitated; fertilization occurs usually in ampulla; egg moves and divides; becomes morula, then blastocyst; hatching (strypsin); early implantation (collagenases)

19

Timescale for human cleavage

Day 0 - fertilized; Day 1 - 2 cells; Day 3/4 - at isthmus - Morula stage; Day 5-7 - blastocyst

20

Compare sea urchin embryo and human embryo **

Sea urchin: all cells divide in X, Y then Z; humans divide in X, then one divides in Y and the other in Z (roational); much slower and asynchronous; genome activated during cleavage; compaction

21

Morula

a solid ball of cells resulting from division of a fertilized ovum, and from which a blastula is formed