Devo Lect 13 - Neural crest cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Devo Lect 13 - Neural crest cells Deck (13)
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Neural crest cells

Produced from formation of neural tube; unique to vertebrates; called the fourth cell layer because they have so many functions; studied by Nicole LeDouarin (chimeras)


Neural crest cells form

Neurons and glial cells for sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system in the PNS; adrenal medulla (adrenalin); melanocytes (pigment); skeletal and connective tissue in head and heart


Regions of neural crest

Forms most of bone in head, incl. inner ear; heart septum, blood vessels; dorsal root ganglia from trunk (sympathetic NS, and melanocytes)


Migration of neural crest cells

Need to move to get to location; many obstructions, so they have certain pathways. One leader cell can form a physical path that is easier to follow, or leave a trail of molecules to follow (haptotaxis)


Zebra stripes

Different patterns. Due to migration of neural crest cells. Exact pattern depends on timing of initial pattern (ie before body is done growing)


Alan Turing

Famous mathematician. Formula for zebra striping patterns. Needs activator to make pigment, and inhibitor to block it.


Jaguar pattern

Even more complex, not even full circles. Another math model. Again, it’s an interaction between activators and inhibitors.


Pluripotency of Neural crest cells

Fate depends on migration and signals they are exposed to in that environment; eg. NGF, glucocorticords



Nerve growth factor: blocks response to glucocorticoids and initiates sympathetic nerve development; discovered initially in nerve growth in tumors; main role in peripheral nervous system, so not as many uses for treatment as we thought



Affect neural crest cells in lower part of body like adrenal medulla; cells become endocrine cells with granules (with NT, hormone, etc)


in vitro experiments on neural crest cells

put undifferentiated cells in dish and expose to different paracrine molecules, see what they become


Carotid body

Chemoreceptors that measure O2 levels, helps regulate breathing; from neural crest cells


Tony’s study on carotid bodies

Removed them from rats and exposed them to NGF (no change - no receptor) and hypoxia (increased growth); some plasticity to react to environment (ie O2 levels at altitude)