Devo Lect 13 - Neural crest cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Devo Lect 13 - Neural crest cells Deck (13):
2

Neural crest cells

Produced from formation of neural tube; unique to vertebrates; called the fourth cell layer because they have so many functions; studied by Nicole LeDouarin (chimeras)

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Neural crest cells form

Neurons and glial cells for sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system in the PNS; adrenal medulla (adrenalin); melanocytes (pigment); skeletal and connective tissue in head and heart

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Regions of neural crest

Forms most of bone in head, incl. inner ear; heart septum, blood vessels; dorsal root ganglia from trunk (sympathetic NS, and melanocytes)

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Migration of neural crest cells

Need to move to get to location; many obstructions, so they have certain pathways. One leader cell can form a physical path that is easier to follow, or leave a trail of molecules to follow (haptotaxis)

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Zebra stripes

Different patterns. Due to migration of neural crest cells. Exact pattern depends on timing of initial pattern (ie before body is done growing)

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Alan Turing

Famous mathematician. Formula for zebra striping patterns. Needs activator to make pigment, and inhibitor to block it.

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Jaguar pattern

Even more complex, not even full circles. Another math model. Again, it’s an interaction between activators and inhibitors.

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Pluripotency of Neural crest cells

Fate depends on migration and signals they are exposed to in that environment; eg. NGF, glucocorticords

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NGF

Nerve growth factor: blocks response to glucocorticoids and initiates sympathetic nerve development; discovered initially in nerve growth in tumors; main role in peripheral nervous system, so not as many uses for treatment as we thought

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Glucocorticoids

Affect neural crest cells in lower part of body like adrenal medulla; cells become endocrine cells with granules (with NT, hormone, etc)

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in vitro experiments on neural crest cells

put undifferentiated cells in dish and expose to different paracrine molecules, see what they become

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Carotid body

Chemoreceptors that measure O2 levels, helps regulate breathing; from neural crest cells

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Tony’s study on carotid bodies

Removed them from rats and exposed them to NGF (no change - no receptor) and hypoxia (increased growth); some plasticity to react to environment (ie O2 levels at altitude)