Devo Lecture 1 - terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Devo Lecture 1 - terms Deck (26):
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Developmental biology

All encompassing term that includes all of life

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Embryology

Study of the beginning processes of development

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Growth

Increase in cell number (sometimes size)

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Differentiation

Cell becomes specialized (ie from stem cell to muscle cell or neural cell etc)

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Morphogenesis

Formations of organs and structures

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Totipotent, Pluripotent, Unipotent

Toti- : give rise to any cell type (embryonic stem cells); pluri- : several types (blood stem cells); uni- : only one type (lower skin layer)

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Determination

Cell’s commitment to a pathway (but not differentiated yet)

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Induction

One group of cells influences another in embryogenesis (ie between layers by means of signaling)

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Viviparity and oviparity

Aristotle: live birth and egg birth

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Scientists in early developmental bio

Aristotle, Da Vinci (observations), Spallazani (showed from eggs don’t develop without sperm), Wolff (primary germ layers), Malpighi, (first histologist)

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Epigenesis

All organs made anew in new organism

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Preformation

View that all organs are present from beginning but really small in gamete; spermists and ovists (beliefs where the humunculus is found)

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Ectoderm

Becomes epidermis and nerves

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Mesoderm

Becomes muscles, bones, gonads, kidneys, blood vessels and heart, connective tissues

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Endoderm

Becomes digestive organs and lungs

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Notochord

Most dorsal part of the mesoderm, divides left and right, leads to development of nervous system in ectoderm

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Ernst Hackel

Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny; animals go through a development that mimics evolution (ie humans go through fish and amphibian stages). Wrong!

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von Baer’s laws

1. General features appear first (bulge in head, eye, tail); 2. General becomes less general to specialized (ie shape of head); 3. embryo does not go through stage similar to adult from another species; 4. all early embryos are similar

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Teratology

Study of malformations in development

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Falitamide

Drug to decrease nausea in pregnancy, which affects angiogenesis resulting in focalmelia (short arms in babies)

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Fate map

Which cells give rise to which, we can follow the divisions

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Stages of development

Gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, organogenesis, larval stages (amphibians), maturity, death

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Primary embyronic induction*

Spemann: ball of cells becomes and symmetrical bilateral organism

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Resurgence of developmental bio due to

Molecular techniques, cloning, stem cells, transgenics, genetics, etc.

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Phylotypic stage

Stage at which embryos from different species look most similar and have many similar genes expressed (“ancient” genes)

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Phylostratigraphy

Comparative evolutionary biology - comparing relative ages of genes