Diabetes Complications Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Diabetes Complications Deck (36):
1

What are the macrovascular complications of diabetes?

IHD; stroke

2

What are the microvascular complications of diabetes?

neuropathy; nephropathy; retinopathy; cognitive dysfunction/dementia; erectile dysfunction; psychiatric

3

what are the types of neuropathy in diabetes?

peripheral; autonomic; proximal; focal neuropathy

4

What are the risk factors for developing neuropathy?

increased length of diabetes; poor glycaemic control; type 1 diabetes; high cholesterol/lipis; smoking; genetic; mechanical injury

5

What is periphaeral neuropathy?

distal symmetric or sensorimotor

6

What are the symptoms of periphaerla neuropathy?

numbness/insensitivity; tingling/burning; sharp pains or cramps; sensitivity to touch; loss of balance and coordination

7

What are the complications of peripheral neuropathy?

charcot foot; painless trauma; foot ulcer

8

What are the treatments for painful neuropathy?

amitriptyline; duloxetine; gabapentin

9

What is the next step is one drug does not work in painful neuropathy?

change or titrate up, combinations are not recommended

10

What is focal neuropath?

appears suddenly and affects specific nerves, most often head, torso or leg

11

What are symptoms of focal neuopathy?

inability to focus eye; double vision; aching behind eye; bells palsy; pain in thigh/chest/lower back/pelvis; pain on outside of foot

12

What is entrapment neuropathy?

weakness in one nerve or a group of nerves causing muscle weakness or pain- carpal tunnel

13

What other names is proximal neuropathy known as

lumbosacral plexus neuropathy; femoral neuropathy or diabetic amyotrophy

14

How does proximal neuropathy start?

starts with pain in the thighs, hips, buttocks or legs, usually on one side of the body; prox. muscle weakness, weight loss

15

Who gets proximal neuropathy?

elderly T2D

16

What does autonomic neuropathy affect?

nerves regulating HR, BP as wel as control of internal organs involved in gastric motility, resp function , rintaion, sexual function and vision

17

What are the signs of autonomic neuropathy in the digestive system?

gastroparesis; gastric slowing/frequency-constipation/diarrhoea; dysphagia

18

What are the treatments for gastroparesis?

improving glycaemic control; diet- smaller, more frequent meals, low fat, low fibre; promotility drugs; anti-nauea drugs; abdo pain treatment- NSAIDs; gastric pacemaker

19

How does autonomic neuropathy affect the eyes?

makes the pupils less responsive to changes in light

20

What is diabetic nephropathy?

progressive kidney disease caused by daamge to teh capillaries in the kidneys glomeruli, characterized by nephrotic syndrome and diffuse scarring of the glomeruli

21

What are the consequences of diabetic nephropathy?

HT; decline in renal function; accelerated vascular disease

22

How is nephraopthy screened for?

urinary albumin creatinine ratio

23

What are the risk factors for nephropathy progression?

HT; cholesterol; smoking; glycamic control; albuminuria

24

What is the blood pressure target in diabetes pts with nephropathy?

<130/80

25

What drug should be commenced in pateints with microalbuminuria or proteinuria?

ACEI or ARB

26

What eye pathologies do diabetic patients get?

diabetic retinopathy; cataracts; glaucome; acute hyperglycaemia

27

What are the stages of retinopathy?

mild non-proliferative; moderate non-proliferative; sever non-proliferative; proliferative

28

What are cotton wool spots?

ischaemic areas

29

What are hard exudates?

lipid break down products that have leaked from vessels

30

What are IRMAs?

intra-retinal microvascular abnormalities- precursor to neovascularisation

31

What is seen with mild background retinopathy?

haemorrages and microaneurysms

32

What is seen in pre-proliferative retinopathy?

microaneuryms; hard exudates; haemorrages

33

What is seen in severe non-proliferative retinopathy?

IRMA; venous beading; haemorrages

34

What is seen in severe proliferative retinopathy?

new vessel formation which causes fibrosis

35

What are the treatments for retinopathy?

laser; vitrectomy

36

What drugs commonly cause erectile dysfunction?

anti-hypertensive drugs- thiazides and beta blockers; CNS- antidepressatns; sedatives; analgesics