Type 1 Diabetes Flashcards Preview

Endocrine > Type 1 Diabetes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Type 1 Diabetes Deck (40):
1

What are possible environmental triggers for type 1 diabetes?

viral infection; maternal factors; weight gain; vitamin D deficiency; dietary factors; environmental toxins

2

What antigens with which auto-antibodies are formed against in type 1?

glutamine acid decaroxylase
islet-antigen 2
insulin
ZnT8 transporter

3

What are the auto-antibodies in type 1?

GAD65Ab
IA-2Ab
IAA
ZnT8Ab

4

What are the accelerating factors for diabetes?

infection; insulin resistance; puberty; diet/weight; stress

5

What are the features of type 1 diabetes?

raised glucose; ketones; decreased insulin; decreased beta cell mass; decreased C-peptide

6

What are the typical presenting symptoms of type 1 diabetes?

polyuria (enuresis in children); polydipsia; weight loss; fatigue and somnelence; blurred vision; candidal infection

7

What is the ideal range of HbA1c?

48 to 58 mmol/mol

8

What are the two phases of insulin secretion?

rapid phase of pre-formed insulin and slow phase over 1 to 2 hours

9

What vessel is insulin secreted into?

portal vein

10

What type of diabetes should you suspectin a patient under the age of 6?

monogenic diabetes

11

What is LADA?

latent onset diabetes of adulthood

12

How is a diagnosis of LADA made?

the presence of elevated levels of pancreatic auto-antibodies in patients who do not initially require insulin

13

Who gets LADA?

young adults 25-40; male; usually non-obese

14

How many patients with CF get diabetes?

more than 25% will have a 20 years

15

What is Wolfram syndrome?

DIDMOAD
Diabetes Insipidus
Diabetes MEllitus
Optic Atrophy
Deafness

16

What are the features of bardet-beidl syndrome?

very obese; polydactyly; hypogonadal; visual impairment; hearing impairment; mental retardation; diabetes

17

What are the associated auto-immune conditions with type 1?

thyroid disease; coeliac disease; pernicious anaemia; addisons disease; IgA deficiency

18

How is coeliac disease diagnosed?

anti-TTG antibodies; duodenal biopsy

19

What are the symtoms of thyroid disease?

wegith change; deterioration in HbA1c; hypoglycasemia

20

What is polyglandular endocrinopathy?

The polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) form
different clusters of autoimmune disorders and are
rare endocrinopathies characterized by the coexistence
of at least two glandular autoimmune mediated
diseases

21

What are the symptoms of hypoglycaemia?

pallor; sweating; tremor; palpitations; confusion; nausea; hunger

22

What are the symtpoms of hyperglycaemia?

thrist; tiredness; blurred vision; weight loss; polyuria; nocturia; fungal infections

23

What percentage of insulin produced does the basal rate of insulin account for?

50%

24

Give examples of rapid-acting analogues?

humalog; novorapid; apidra

25

Give examples of long acting analogues?

lantus; levemir

26

How should most people with type 1 diabetes be treated?

with MDI or CSII

27

What is the initial amount of insulin given to a patient?

0.3units/kg of body weight

28

What is the target for blood glucose before a meal?

3.9-7.2

29

What is the blood glucose target 1-2 hours after beginning of meal?

<10mmol/l

30

How long do insulin analogues take to act?

10-15 minutes

31

What is onset of action of soluble insulin?

30-60 minutes

32

What is advanced carbohydrate counting?

synchronising the amount of insulin to amount of carbohydrate consumed

33

What do insulin pumps deliver?

continuous administration of short acting insulin subcutaenously

34

How is glycated haemoglobin formed?

by non-enzymatic glycation of haemoglobin on exposure to glucose

35

What factors can affect insulin absorption/action?

tempreature; injection site; injection depth; exercise

36

Do you stop insulin if patient has a hypo?

No- treat hypo and administer insulin as normal

37

What should also be given with IV insulin infusions?

glucose

38

Who is given IV insulin?

DKA; in hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state; acute illness; fasting patients who are unable to tolerate oral intake

39

What is the blood glucose level aimed for with IV insulin?

5-12 mmol

40

How often should patients on IV insulin have their blood glucose checked?

hourly