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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (78):
1

What is the diencephalon made up of?

thalamus and hypothalamus

2

What are the 3 parts of the brainstem?

midbrain; pons; medulla oblongata

3

What connects the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland?

infundibulum or pituitary stalk

4

What is pituitary fossa lie within?

the sella turcica

5

Where is the pituitary fossa?

a midline structure of the sphenoid bone

6

Which part of the retina do things from the nasal side of the visual side enter?

temporal retina

7

What lies immediately superior to the pituitary gland?

optic chaism

8

What forms the optic chiasm?

right and left optic nerves (CNII)

9

How do the signals from the eyes reach the visual cortex?

travel to the optic chaism, then that splits into right and left optic tracts, synapses at the thalamaus, pass via the optic radition to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe

10

What is the difference between nasal retina and temporal retina transmission?

nasal retina APs cross over at the chiasma but temporal retina APs stay on the same side

11

What is bitemporal hemianopia?

when a patient loses the ability to see structures in the temporal side of hte visual field bilaterally

12

What bone are the superior and middle nasal concha made from?

ethmoid bone

13

What are the paranasal sinuses?

air-filled spaces within the bones surrounding the nasal cavities

14

What type of epithelia line the paranasal sinsues?

muscous secreting respiratory muscosa

15

Which bones have a sinus?

frontal bone; maxilla; ethmoid bone; sphenoid bone

16

What is the function of the paranasal sinsues?

make muscous and drain it into the nasal cavities through ostia (bony drainage hole); reduce the weigth of the skull; add resonance to the voice

17

what lines the entire cranial cavity internally?

dura mater

18

What is the tenorium cerebelli?

a tough sheet of dura mater "tenting" over the cerebellum between the cerebellum and cerebrum within the posterior cranial fossa but with a central gap to permit the brainstem to pass through

19

What is the diaphragm sellae?

a tough sheet of dura mater forming a roof over the pituitary fossa

20

What are the dural venous sinuses?

venous channels within the dura mater that drain most of hte venous blood from the cranial cavity (and brain) into the internal jugular veins

21

Where do the dural venous sinuses drain into the internal jugular veins?

at the jugular foraminae in the floor of the posterior cranial fossa

22

What venous drainage surrounds the pituitary gand?

cavernous and intercavernous sinuses

23

What arteries pass through the cavernous sinuses?

internal carotid arteries

24

What are the 3 parts of the thyroid gland?

2 lateral lobes and an isthmus

25

Where does the isthmus lie?

anterior to the 2nd and 3rd cartilages of the trachea

26

Where are the parathyroid glands located?

posterior surfaces of the thyroid glands lateral lobes

27

What is the pyramidal lobe?

an extra lobe on the thyroid gland which most commonly originates fro mthe left lateral lobe

28

What does the pyramidal lobe most commonly attach to superiorly?

thyroid cartilage

29

Where does the thyroid gland begin its development

as a midline epithelial proliferation at the junction between the anterior and posterior parts of the tongue

30

What is the area where the thyroid gland begin called in adults?

foramen caecum

31

What attaches the thyroid gland to the tongue once it has migrated?

the thyroglossal duct

32

When does the gland reac hits final position?

7th week of development

33

What are the platysma muscles?

a muscle of facial expression

34

Where are the platysma muscles found?

immediately deep to the skin within the superficial fascia of the neck

35

What is the nerve supply to the platysma muscles?

facial nerve

36

What is the most superficial deep fascia in the neck?

investing fascia

37

What two muscles does the investing fascia enclose?

trapezius and sternocleidomastoid

38

What does the prevertebral fascia enclose?

the cervical vertebrae and postural neck muscles

39

What do the carotid sheaths enclose?

internal jugular vins; carotid arteries; vagus nerves; deep cervical lymph nodes

40

What do the pretracheal fascia?

strap muscles; thyroid gland; trachea; oesophagus; recurrent laryngeal

41

What is found between the pretracheal and prevertebral fascia?

retropharyngeal space

42

What cranial nerve supplies the SCM and trapezius?

spinal accessory nerve

43

What does the anterior jugular vein drain into?

the external jugular vein

44

Where are the carotid sheaths foudn?

deep to the investing fascia and located anterolaterally in the neck either side of the thyroid gland

45

What do the superior and middle thyroid veins drain into?

the internal jugular veins

46

What do the inferior thyroid veins drain into?

brachiocephalic veins

47

What do the basillar arteries and internal carotids anastamsoe to form?

the circle of Willis

48

What forms the basilar artery?

vertebral arteries

49

What level is the thyroid gland foudn at?

C7

50

Where does the spinal accessory run in the neck?

between the SCM and trapezius

51

What are the two arteries that supply the thyroid gland?

superior and inferior thyroid arteries

52

What is the superior thyroid artery a branch of?

external carotid artery

53

What is the inferior thyroid artery a branch of?

subclavian artery

54

What are the tracheal lymph nodes?

pretracheal nodes and paratracheal nodes

55

What forms the venous angles?

internal jugular and subclavian veins

56

What foramen does the vagus nerve leave through?

the jugular foramen

57

which part of the brain does the vagus nerve connect with?

medulla oblongata

58

What branches do the vagus nerves give off?

superior laryngeal nerve and the right recurrent laryngeal nerve

59

Do the vagus nerves pass anterior or posterior to the lung roots?

posterior

60

What does the left recurrent laryngeal nerve recur under?

the arch of the aorta

61

What does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve recur under?

the subclavian artery

62

What are the 4 strap muscles?

sternohyoid; omohoid;thyrohyoid and sternothyroid

63

What fascia are the strap muscles found within?

the pretracheal fascia

64

What is unusual about the omohyoid muscle?

has 2 bellies- a superior and an inferior belly

65

What splits the muscle into two bellies?

fascial sling attaching the intermediate tendon of omohyoid to the clavicle

66

What forms the sides of the anterior triangle of the neck?

midline of the neck; anterior aspect of the sternal head of the SCM and the inferior border of the mandible

67

What forms the sides of the posterior triangle fo the neck?

the posterior border of clavicular head; the anterior border of the trapezius muscle and the superior border of the clavicle

68

Where does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve run?

the groove between the trachea anteriorly and oesophagus posteriorly

69

What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve supply?

somatic motor to most of the skeletal muscles that move the vocal cord (intrinsic muscles of the larynx)

70

What happens if there is unilateral injury to the reccurent laryngeal nerves?

hoarseness or weakness of the voice and a weak cough

71

What does bilaterla injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve cause?

aphonia and inability to close the rima glottidis to prevent aspiration or to produce a good cough (which require the closure of the rima glottidis)

72

Which strap muscles are deep?

thyrohyoid and sternothyroid

73

What fissure and bone do the optic nerves travel in?

optic canal in the sphenoid bone

74

What is the function of the anterior intercavernous sinus?

connect the right and left cavernous sinuses anterior to the pituitary gland

75

Which arteries pass through the cavernous sinuses?

internal carotid arterteries

76

What makes up the walls of the cavernous sinuses?

dura mater

77

What nerves pass in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus from superior to inferior?

oculomotor; trochlear; trigeminal (opthalmic and maxillary divisions)

78

What nerve traverses the sinus inferiorly to the ICA?

abducents nerve