Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (78):
What is the diencephalon made up of?
thalamus and hypothalamus
What are the 3 parts of the brainstem?
midbrain; pons; medulla oblongata
What connects the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland?
infundibulum or pituitary stalk
What is pituitary fossa lie within?
the sella turcica
Where is the pituitary fossa?
a midline structure of the sphenoid bone
Which part of the retina do things from the nasal side of the visual side enter?
What lies immediately superior to the pituitary gland?
What forms the optic chiasm?
right and left optic nerves (CNII)
How do the signals from the eyes reach the visual cortex?
travel to the optic chaism, then that splits into right and left optic tracts, synapses at the thalamaus, pass via the optic radition to the visual cortex in the occipital lobe
What is the difference between nasal retina and temporal retina transmission?
nasal retina APs cross over at the chiasma but temporal retina APs stay on the same side
What is bitemporal hemianopia?
when a patient loses the ability to see structures in the temporal side of hte visual field bilaterally
What bone are the superior and middle nasal concha made from?
What are the paranasal sinuses?
air-filled spaces within the bones surrounding the nasal cavities
What type of epithelia line the paranasal sinsues?
muscous secreting respiratory muscosa
Which bones have a sinus?
frontal bone; maxilla; ethmoid bone; sphenoid bone
What is the function of the paranasal sinsues?
make muscous and drain it into the nasal cavities through ostia (bony drainage hole); reduce the weigth of the skull; add resonance to the voice
what lines the entire cranial cavity internally?
What is the tenorium cerebelli?
a tough sheet of dura mater "tenting" over the cerebellum between the cerebellum and cerebrum within the posterior cranial fossa but with a central gap to permit the brainstem to pass through
What is the diaphragm sellae?
a tough sheet of dura mater forming a roof over the pituitary fossa
What are the dural venous sinuses?
venous channels within the dura mater that drain most of hte venous blood from the cranial cavity (and brain) into the internal jugular veins
Where do the dural venous sinuses drain into the internal jugular veins?
at the jugular foraminae in the floor of the posterior cranial fossa
What venous drainage surrounds the pituitary gand?
cavernous and intercavernous sinuses
What arteries pass through the cavernous sinuses?
internal carotid arteries
What are the 3 parts of the thyroid gland?
2 lateral lobes and an isthmus
Where does the isthmus lie?
anterior to the 2nd and 3rd cartilages of the trachea
Where are the parathyroid glands located?
posterior surfaces of the thyroid glands lateral lobes
What is the pyramidal lobe?
an extra lobe on the thyroid gland which most commonly originates fro mthe left lateral lobe
What does the pyramidal lobe most commonly attach to superiorly?
Where does the thyroid gland begin its development
as a midline epithelial proliferation at the junction between the anterior and posterior parts of the tongue
What is the area where the thyroid gland begin called in adults?
What attaches the thyroid gland to the tongue once it has migrated?
the thyroglossal duct
When does the gland reac hits final position?
7th week of development
What are the platysma muscles?
a muscle of facial expression
Where are the platysma muscles found?
immediately deep to the skin within the superficial fascia of the neck
What is the nerve supply to the platysma muscles?
What is the most superficial deep fascia in the neck?
What two muscles does the investing fascia enclose?
trapezius and sternocleidomastoid
What does the prevertebral fascia enclose?
the cervical vertebrae and postural neck muscles
What do the carotid sheaths enclose?
internal jugular vins; carotid arteries; vagus nerves; deep cervical lymph nodes
What do the pretracheal fascia?
strap muscles; thyroid gland; trachea; oesophagus; recurrent laryngeal
What is found between the pretracheal and prevertebral fascia?
What cranial nerve supplies the SCM and trapezius?
spinal accessory nerve
What does the anterior jugular vein drain into?
the external jugular vein
Where are the carotid sheaths foudn?
deep to the investing fascia and located anterolaterally in the neck either side of the thyroid gland
What do the superior and middle thyroid veins drain into?
the internal jugular veins
What do the inferior thyroid veins drain into?
What do the basillar arteries and internal carotids anastamsoe to form?
the circle of Willis
What forms the basilar artery?
What level is the thyroid gland foudn at?
Where does the spinal accessory run in the neck?
between the SCM and trapezius
What are the two arteries that supply the thyroid gland?
superior and inferior thyroid arteries
What is the superior thyroid artery a branch of?
external carotid artery
What is the inferior thyroid artery a branch of?
What are the tracheal lymph nodes?
pretracheal nodes and paratracheal nodes
What forms the venous angles?
internal jugular and subclavian veins
What foramen does the vagus nerve leave through?
the jugular foramen
which part of the brain does the vagus nerve connect with?
What branches do the vagus nerves give off?
superior laryngeal nerve and the right recurrent laryngeal nerve
Do the vagus nerves pass anterior or posterior to the lung roots?
What does the left recurrent laryngeal nerve recur under?
the arch of the aorta
What does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve recur under?
the subclavian artery
What are the 4 strap muscles?
sternohyoid; omohoid;thyrohyoid and sternothyroid
What fascia are the strap muscles found within?
the pretracheal fascia
What is unusual about the omohyoid muscle?
has 2 bellies- a superior and an inferior belly
What splits the muscle into two bellies?
fascial sling attaching the intermediate tendon of omohyoid to the clavicle
What forms the sides of the anterior triangle of the neck?
midline of the neck; anterior aspect of the sternal head of the SCM and the inferior border of the mandible
What forms the sides of the posterior triangle fo the neck?
the posterior border of clavicular head; the anterior border of the trapezius muscle and the superior border of the clavicle
Where does the right recurrent laryngeal nerve run?
the groove between the trachea anteriorly and oesophagus posteriorly
What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve supply?
somatic motor to most of the skeletal muscles that move the vocal cord (intrinsic muscles of the larynx)
What happens if there is unilateral injury to the reccurent laryngeal nerves?
hoarseness or weakness of the voice and a weak cough
What does bilaterla injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve cause?
aphonia and inability to close the rima glottidis to prevent aspiration or to produce a good cough (which require the closure of the rima glottidis)
Which strap muscles are deep?
thyrohyoid and sternothyroid
What fissure and bone do the optic nerves travel in?
optic canal in the sphenoid bone
What is the function of the anterior intercavernous sinus?
connect the right and left cavernous sinuses anterior to the pituitary gland
Which arteries pass through the cavernous sinuses?
internal carotid arterteries
What makes up the walls of the cavernous sinuses?
What nerves pass in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus from superior to inferior?
oculomotor; trochlear; trigeminal (opthalmic and maxillary divisions)