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Where is glycogen stored in the body?

liver and muscle


What are the steps leading to influx of caclium into the beta cell?

glucose enters cell, undergoes metabolism, producing ATP which closes the Katp channel and causes the PM to depolarise leading to caliucm influx


What are the core defects of type 2 diabetes

insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction


What is insulin resistance?

when the receptor is not as responsive to the insulin molecule and so less glucose enters the cell, this results in a build up of glucose in the blood


What causes insulin resistance?

ectopic fat acccumulation and increased FFA circulation; increased inflammatory mediator----inhibition of insulin via serine kinases responsible for phosphorylation of IRS-1


What is beta cell dysfunction?

reduced ability of beta cells to secrete insulin in response to hyperglycaemia


How does insulin resistance result in decreased beta-cell function?

glutoxicity; lipotoxicity


What is pancreatic burnout?

When beta cells are no longer able to compensate for insulin resistance in tissues and cannot maintain blood glucose levels