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Flashcards in Diabetes - Scott Deck (16):
1

What is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease?

Diabetes

2

What is the leading cause of adult-onset blindness?

Diabetes

3

How much of total diabetes diagnoses is Type 1 D? Type 2 D?

T1D: 5%
T2D: 90%

4

What are the most frequent mutations in MODY?

HNF 4a
Glucokinase
HNF-1a
IPF-1
HNF-1b
NeuroD1

5

What receptors are increased in response to insulin?

Glut4

6

How much of the beta cells need to be destroyed before symptoms start?

80%

7

What MHCII alleles are most frequently associated with T1D?

HLA-DR3
HLA-DR4

8

What do these MHC variants have altered?

Altered amino acids in binding site, resulting in less effective in binding proteins

9

What is the drug given for prevention of at-risk individuals for T1D?

Teplizumab

10

Where are the primary sites of insulin resistance in T2D?

Adipose
Skeletal muscle
Liver

11

What is an important cytokine to inflammation in T2D?

TNFa

12

What is the TNFa receptor?

Threonine kinase JNK

13

What does JNK do to insulin receptors?

Renders them inactive

14

With increased TNFa, what do adipose cells do with free fatty acids?

Increase release of FFA's, not formation

15

Which TLR is important for skeletal muscle and liver cell insulin resistance?

TLR4

16

What does metformin inhibit?

Complex 1 of ETC