Parathyroid Pathology Flashcards Preview

HRM - Pathology > Parathyroid Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Parathyroid Pathology Deck (18):
1

What are the actions of PTH?

Increase Bone resorption
Increase Renal resorption of Ca
Increase Renal excretion of P
Increase Renal conversion of VitD to active form
Increase Gut absorption of Ca

2

If you have decreased serum calcium, what happens to PTH synthesis?

Increases

3

What are five causes of hypercalcemia?

Hyperparathyroidism
Malignancy (mets, PTH related protein)
Vitamin D overdose
Thiazide diuretics
Milk-alkali syndrome

4

What is the most common cause of symptomatic hypercalcemia?

Malignancy

5

What is the most common cause of asymptomatic hypercalcemia?

Hyperparathyroidism

6

What is secondary hyperparathyroidism due to?

Chronic hypocalcemia (renal failure)

7

What is tertiary hyperparathyroidism due to?

Autonomous parathyroids

8

What is pseudohyperparathyroidism?

PTH-related protein from a paraneoplastic syndrome

9

What are the most common causes of hyperparathyroidism?

Adenoma
Hyperplasia
Carcinoma

10

What are the signs and symptoms of hyperparathyroidism?

Stones (kidney)
Bones (Pain, brown tumors)
Groans (GI Problems)
Moans (Mental changes)

11

What are the lab findings in primary hyperparathyroidism?

Increased PTH
Increased Ca
Decreased Phosphate

12

What are brown tumors?

Microhemorrhages in bone and blood just kinda sits there

13

What two receptors are implicated in osteoclast stimulation?

RANKL
M-CSF

14

What are the common genetic defects leading to parathyroid adenoma?

PRAD 1 overexpression (Cyclin D1)
MEN1 loss or mutation

15

How is parathyroid carcinoma different from adenoma in clinical presentation?

Carcinoma: Abrupt onset of bone pain

16

What are the common causes of secondary hypoparathyroidism?

Renal failure
Diet poor in calcium
Low vitamin D

17

What are the most common causes of hypoparathyroidism?

Iatrogenic
Hereditary (DiGeorge syndrome or agenesis)
Idiopathic atrophy

18

What are signs and symptoms of hypoparathyroidism?

Perioral numbness
Muscle weakness/cramps/tetany
Hyperreactive facial nerve with twitching (Chvostek's sign)
Cramping in hand with blood pressure cuff (Trousseau's sign)
Arrhythmias
Dental abnormalities