Diarrhoea Flashcards Preview

year 3 GIT > Diarrhoea > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diarrhoea Deck (49):
1

What affects acid release in the stomach?

- chemical stimulus from food (gastrin)
- stretch in lumen (gastin)
- parasympathetic NS (Ach)
- histamine

2

How does gastrin affect acid secretion?

Travels via blood then acts via ccKb receptor on K+/H+ ATPase

3

What does vagal input do to GIT?

Increases tone so increases smooth muscle contractions - increase motility

4

4 ways to treat constipation

- lubricate (liquid parafin)
- form bulk (fibre - stimulate defecation)
- osmotic agents (Mg sulphate - stimulate defecation as distended)
- stimulant - irritant

5

two types of emetics

- stimulate vom centre (dopamine agonist)
- irritate gastric mucose (epsom salts)

6

two type of anti-emetics

- dopamine antagonist (metoclopramide)
- M1 and H1 antagonist ( diphenylhydramine)

7

5 types of gastro-protective and ulcer-healing drugs

- antacids (CaCo3)
- H2 antagonis (ranitidine)
- proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole)
-mucosal binding agents (sucralfate)
- prostaglandin analogues (misoprostol)

8

How do cows get metabolic acidosis from diarrhoea?

fermentation of starch and sugars in the hindgut produces H+ which pulls buffering ions into the lumen and are excreted.

increased problem with dia as stagnant food

and as hypovolaemic the kidney is under perfused so less able to buffer acid/base changes

9

Why don't you want to give antibiotics to young calves with diarrhoea?

can affect the developing GIT flora and will create problems later on

10

How do rotavirus / coronavirus result in diarrhoea?

they are activated by int. proteolytic enzymes

attack ep cells of SI causing desquamation and reduction in absorptive capacity and secretory defence mechanisms

so get dia loosing water, sodium, chloride, bicarb

11

How does ETEC cause diarrhoea?

uses F5 Ag to adhere to mucosa brush border and produces a heat labile toxin (enterotoxin) that causes hypersecretion of fluid into the gut causing rapid dehydration, collapse and death. (also produces heat stabile toxin)

12

Why is ETEC more commonly found in very young calves?

At a week old receptors in the GIT to ETEC toxin are covered by mucus

13

in adult horses where does dia come from?

always colon +/- SI
never just SI

14

in a foal where can dia come from?

LI or SI

15

How is diarrhoea in horses classified?

1) animal age
2) duration of signs
3) history -risk factors

16

What are the most common causes of diarrhoea in foals upto 3/4 MO?

- foal heat dia ( 7-10d old as starting to eat roughage)
- rotavirus
- salmonella
-clostridia

17

What are the most common causes of diarrhoea in older foals upto 10-12 MO?

- parasitic (strongylus, culgaris, cyathostomins)
- proliferative enteropathy (lawsonia intracellularis (at weaning -7m))
- salmonella
- clostridia

18

What are the most common causes of diarrhoea in adult horses?

- salmonella
- clostridia
- undiagnosed

19

Signs of acute diarrhoea in horses

sudden onset
febrile
dehydrated
hypovolaemic
endotoxaemia

20

Causes of acute diarrhoea in horses?

salmonella
parasite
costridia
antimicrobial associated
NSAID toxicity
sand enteropathy
carb overload

21

When is diarrhoea chronic in the horse?

after about 2 weeks, animal is coping

22

Common causes of chronic diarrhoea in horses?

salmonella
parasites
sand enteropathy
NSAID toxicity
IBD
dietary
neoplasia

23

3 main principles of therapy for diarrhoea in horses?

fluid therapy
endotoxaemia prevention / treatment
specific treatments for cause

24

What is endotoxaemia? and what are the associated signs?

when endotoxin from a G-ve bacteria enters the blood stream through a damaged mucosal barrier -
interacts with macrophages -
systemic infl ---
depression, tachycardia, tachypnoea, fever, colic, dai, hyperaemic toxix mucous membranes

25

How to diagnose endotoxaemia?

low WBC
low neutrophils
presence of band neutrophils

26

4 ways to treat endotoxaemia

1) prevent endotoxin entering circulation (remove inf bowel)
2) neutralise endotoxin before it interacts with infl cells (polymixin B or plasma with Ab)
3) prevent synthesis, release or action of infl mediators (flunixin)
4) prevent endotoxin induced cellular activation

27

Foal endotoxaemia - cause and treatment?

Normally from bacteraemia and sepsis so give antibiotics

28

Most common causes of diarrhoea in young calves?

e.coli
rotavirus
coronavirus
cryptosporidium
salmonella
coccidiosis
mixed

29

What is ETEC ?

enterotoxigenic E.Coli
a strain that can cause enteric disease and villi stunting, metabolic acidosis, dehydration and electrolyte loss

30

common causes of diarrhoea in growing cows?

endoparasites
rumen acidosis
salmonella
nutritional
post-weaning scours

31

Common cause of diarrhoea in adult cows?

Johne's disease (MAP) ,
SARA
salmonella
winter dystentry

32

What is Johne's disease (MAP)?

mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis

lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration of the mucosa causing it to be grossly thickened

severe hosepipe faeces and weight loss

may be zoonotic
no cure so cull

33

What is melaena a sign of?

bleeding from upper GIT

34

what is dyschezia?

difficult or painful defecation (indicates colon obstruction)

35

what is heamatochezia?

fresh blood in stool (indicated colitis)

36

What is tenesmus?

ineffectual straining (colitis)

37

How is diarrhoea catagorised in the cat and dog?

acute / chronic
small / large intestine

38

Acute vs chronic diarrhoea in the cat and dog

Chronic = over 3 weeks

39

common causes of acute large bowel diarrhoea in the cat and dog?

whipworms
clostridia
giardia
campylobacter

40

How is small bowel acute diarrhoea in the cat and dog divided?

systemic / no systemic signs

41

Common causes of small bowel acute diarrhoea in the cat and dog without systemic signs?

diet
helminths
protozoa
iatrogenic

42

common causes of small bowel acute diarrhoea in the cat and dog with systemic signs?

bacteria (salmonella, campylobacter)
viral (distemper, parvo, panleukopenia)
toxins
haemorrhagic gastroenteritis
acute pancreatitis

43

common causes of chronic large bowel diarrhoea in the cat and dog?

IBD
polyps
food-responsive disease
neoplase
chronic partial obstruction
tritrichomonas foetus (Cat)
Neoplasia
Stress
Strictures

44

how is small bowel chronic diarrhoea in the cat and dog split?

Extra GI
GI

45

common causes of small bowel chronic diarrhoea in the cat and dog - extra GI causes?

metabolic - hepatic disease, hyperthyroidism, addisons, renal insufficiency

pancreatic - EPI, chronic pancreatitis

46

common causes of small bowel chronic diarrhoea in the cat and dog - GI causes?

giardia
chronic partial obstruction
lymphangiectasia
neoplasia
food responsive disease
IBD

47

Small vs large: (cat and dog)
volume
mucus
frequency
tenesmus
dyschezia
weight loss
vom
general condition
meleana

volume - more with small
mucus - large
frequency - more in large
tenesmus - large
dyschezia - large
weight loss - small
vom - both
condition - worse with small
meleana - small

48

What is food responsive disease in cats and dogs?

diarrhoea improves with novel protein

49

Does large bowel diarrhoea cause weight loss?

No as all nutrients already been absorbed