Flashcards in Small animal dentistry Deck (28):
Normal dog occlusion?
- scissor bite (maxillary incisors infront of mandibular)
- mandibular canine should occlude between maxillary canine and third incisor
- premolars should interdigitate in a zig-zag pattern
- posterior scissor bite - upper PM 4 should be buccal to mandiubular M 1
What is mixed dentition?
when a puppy/kitten is teething - mix of permenant and deciduous teeth
Persistent deciduous teeth?
pathology - malocclusion and peridontal disease
remove most abnormally positioned
congenital, impacted tooth, traumatic crown fracture, previous extraction
normally develops before eruption so trauma / virus during development can leave enamel defects
4 trauma induced dental problems
abrasion - eg ball
attrition - tooth against tooth
intrinsic staining - blunt trauma
What to do with a fracture?
will be painful and get an abcess in time and if microbes get in then get pulp necrosis and jaw abnormalities
extract, vital pulp treatment, root canal therapy
How to determine between pulp exposure and reparative dentin?
use the tip of a sharp explorer..if pulp is exposed it will sink in the hole
What is the difference between plaque and calculus (tartar)
plaque - biofilm of bacteria
calculus - mineralised plaque
4 stages of peridontal disease
1) gingivitis, no evidence of attachment loss
2) mild peridontitis 50% loss
What is gingivities?
hyperaemia, oedema, tendency of gingiva to bleed
How get from stage 2-4?
plaque in sulcus has reduced o2 conc so get G-ve obligate anaerboes which invade the unkeratinised peridontal tissue. the immune response destroys the tissue
Systemic risk of peridontal disease?
bacteria in blood -
cardiac lesions, myocardial disease, renal disease, hepatitis
2 complications of peridontal disease?
risk of jaw fracture
What is stomatitis?
infl of the oral mucosa extending beyond the muco-gingival junction
usually bilateral and symmetrical
What is the difference between a luxator and an elevator?
Luxator - thin working end with a sharp blade
Elevator - rounded, spoon shaped blade
5 step direct extraction technique?
1) cut gingival attachment - walk scalpel round the tooth
2) insert luxator into peridontal ligament space - hold at 30 degrees to tooth and wedge into space and hold. At each corner of tooth
3) Insert and rotate elevator - insert until its wedged and rotate and hold. mesial and distal aspect or 4 corners
4) use extraction forceps - go as far apically as possible and rotate and traction
5) inspect apex for complete root
Direct extraction of a multi-rooted tooth?
1) cut gingival attachment
2) reduce crown height if needed
3) first cut between palatal and 2 buccal roots, then cut between two buccal roots
4) confirm each root can move independently
5) extract each root
What special technique is needed for extraction of PM 4?
cut distal overhang to create space for elevator
Possible complications of direct extraction?
- root fragmentation
- jaw bone necrosis
- iatrogenic jaw bone fracture
- oro-nasal fistula
Why would you extract a tooth surgically?
big rooted teeth, perisistent deciduous canines, limit risk of iatrogenic jaw bone fracture, dealing with / preventing extraction complications
2 main flap designs for surgical extraction
envelope - no vertical release
vertical release incisions - 2 for bigger teeth
Name 3 structures that needed to be avoided when carrying out a surgical extraction
- neurovascular bundle from infraorbital foramen (above PM 3)
- neurovascular bundle from mental foramen ( below PM 2)
- parotid papilla (above PM 4)
on a radiograph what do the lamina dura and peridontal ligament look like?
Lamina dura (really dense alveolar bone) - white line around root
Peridontal ligament - thin black line around root
What is the pathogenesis of tooth resorption?
Teeth are attacked by odontoclasts which release acid - damages enamel and dentine - resoptive lacunae - vascular granulation tissue fills the lesion and may be replaced by bone and cementum like tissue
What is the difference in tooth resorption between cats and dogs?
Cats - common and increased prevalence with age
dogs - normally coincidental, leave in if sub-gingival and no pain / infl