Small animal dentistry Flashcards Preview

year 3 GIT > Small animal dentistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Small animal dentistry Deck (28):

Normal dog occlusion?

- scissor bite (maxillary incisors infront of mandibular)
- mandibular canine should occlude between maxillary canine and third incisor
- premolars should interdigitate in a zig-zag pattern
- posterior scissor bite - upper PM 4 should be buccal to mandiubular M 1


What is mixed dentition?

when a puppy/kitten is teething - mix of permenant and deciduous teeth


Persistent deciduous teeth?

pathology - malocclusion and peridontal disease
extract it



remove most abnormally positioned


missing teeth?

congenital, impacted tooth, traumatic crown fracture, previous extraction


Enamel hypoplasia?

normally develops before eruption so trauma / virus during development can leave enamel defects


4 trauma induced dental problems

abrasion - eg ball
attrition - tooth against tooth
intrinsic staining - blunt trauma


What to do with a fracture?

will be painful and get an abcess in time and if microbes get in then get pulp necrosis and jaw abnormalities

extract, vital pulp treatment, root canal therapy


How to determine between pulp exposure and reparative dentin?

use the tip of a sharp explorer..if pulp is exposed it will sink in the hole


What is the difference between plaque and calculus (tartar)

plaque - biofilm of bacteria
calculus - mineralised plaque


4 stages of peridontal disease

1) gingivitis, no evidence of attachment loss
2) mild peridontitis 50% loss


What is gingivities?

plaque induced
hyperaemia, oedema, tendency of gingiva to bleed


How get from stage 2-4?

plaque in sulcus has reduced o2 conc so get G-ve obligate anaerboes which invade the unkeratinised peridontal tissue. the immune response destroys the tissue


Systemic risk of peridontal disease?

bacteria in blood -
cardiac lesions, myocardial disease, renal disease, hepatitis


2 complications of peridontal disease?

oronasal fistula
risk of jaw fracture


What is stomatitis?

infl of the oral mucosa extending beyond the muco-gingival junction
usually bilateral and symmetrical


What is the difference between a luxator and an elevator?

Luxator - thin working end with a sharp blade

Elevator - rounded, spoon shaped blade


5 step direct extraction technique?

1) cut gingival attachment - walk scalpel round the tooth
2) insert luxator into peridontal ligament space - hold at 30 degrees to tooth and wedge into space and hold. At each corner of tooth
3) Insert and rotate elevator - insert until its wedged and rotate and hold. mesial and distal aspect or 4 corners
4) use extraction forceps - go as far apically as possible and rotate and traction
5) inspect apex for complete root


Direct extraction of a multi-rooted tooth?

1) cut gingival attachment
2) reduce crown height if needed
3) first cut between palatal and 2 buccal roots, then cut between two buccal roots
4) confirm each root can move independently
5) extract each root


What special technique is needed for extraction of PM 4?

cut distal overhang to create space for elevator


Possible complications of direct extraction?

- root fragmentation
- jaw bone necrosis
- iatrogenic jaw bone fracture
- oro-nasal fistula


Why would you extract a tooth surgically?

big rooted teeth, perisistent deciduous canines, limit risk of iatrogenic jaw bone fracture, dealing with / preventing extraction complications


2 main flap designs for surgical extraction

envelope - no vertical release
vertical release incisions - 2 for bigger teeth


Name 3 structures that needed to be avoided when carrying out a surgical extraction

- neurovascular bundle from infraorbital foramen (above PM 3)
- neurovascular bundle from mental foramen ( below PM 2)
- parotid papilla (above PM 4)


on a radiograph what do the lamina dura and peridontal ligament look like?

Lamina dura (really dense alveolar bone) - white line around root

Peridontal ligament - thin black line around root


What is the pathogenesis of tooth resorption?

Teeth are attacked by odontoclasts which release acid - damages enamel and dentine - resoptive lacunae - vascular granulation tissue fills the lesion and may be replaced by bone and cementum like tissue


What is the difference in tooth resorption between cats and dogs?

Cats - common and increased prevalence with age

dogs - normally coincidental, leave in if sub-gingival and no pain / infl


Outline the 3 types of tooth resorption

Type 1 - focal lesion, ligament intact - standard extraction

Type 2 - partial loss of ligament - crown amputation with root retention

Type 3 - mix of 1 and 2