Flashcards in pathology of GIT Deck (29):
3 conditions associated with abdominal pain
-torsion / volvulus
-obstruction (internal - FB, tumour, intussusception) (external - strangulating lipoma)
Signs of upper intestinal obstruction
acute and severe
fluid and gas distension, vom, metabolic alkalosis, dehydration, uraemia
Signs of lower intestinal obstruction
metabolic acidosis, vom, ulceration and infarction
conditions associated with acute diarrhoea (5)
- altered ep cell transport
- altered structure / permeability
- osmotic effects
- altered motility
- damage to colonic mucosa
Conditions associated with chronic diarrhoea and/or weight loss (7)
protein losing enteropathy
Two broad categories of chronic dia
maldigestion - liver or pancreas
How does bacterial overgrowth cause dia
- bile salt deficiency
- trauma to int
- nutrient consumption
What is protein losing enteropathy?
When mucosa is damaged so has increased permeability so proteins ( esp albumin) leak into the lumen and decrease blood osmotic pressure
cause - IBD, lymphangiectasia, neoplasia
signs - dia, vom, anorexia, weight loss, ascites, pleural effusion, peripheral oedema
What are the different types of IBD?
granulomatus (macrophages present - johnes)
due to mutated PRR on enterocytes so commensals / food seen as pathogens
what is lymphangiectasia?
block and distended lymph vessels - affects absorption
What is grass sickness?
a functional disease in hindgut fermenters from clostridium toxin which paralyses the ANS so no peristaltic movements
How do you diagnose Johnes disease?
Ziel - Nielhson stain
host tissue - blue
mycobactera - red
What is the name of a smooth muscle neoplasm?
What lesions are seen with grass sickness?
caecal distension (food - impaction)
stomach dilates and can rupture
acid reflux of gut contents can ulcerate the oesophagus
What do you see with cyathostomins in horse colons?
pock marks - parasite larvae
9 main liver pathologies
- congenital and developmental disorders
- circulatory disorders
- disorders of pigmentation
- degenerative disease
- abnormal deposits and accumulations
- toxic liver disease
6 liver congenital and developmental disorders
- portosystemic shunt ( congenital or acquired)
- congenital cysts
- displacements (congenital of acquired)
- tension lipidosis (focal areas of subcapsular fatty change)
- capsular fibrosis (fibrous tags on surface)
- telangiectosis (foci of sinusoidal dilation)
1 liver circulatory disorder
passive venous congestion (from right sided heart failure, nutmeg liver)
4 disorders of pigmentation - liver
lipofuscin / ceroid
2 types of degenerative disease - liver
vacuolar hepatopathies ( hydropic change , glycogen accumulation)
2 types of liver accumulative disease
- lysosomal storage disease
3 types of liver inflammation
cholangiohepatitis - parenchyma and bile ducts
cholangitis - bile ducts
hepatitis - liver parenchyma
3 broad causes of hepatitis
What viruses can cause hepatitis
adenovirus - infectious canine hepatitis
what bacteria cause hepatitis
- bacillary necrosis (Fusobacterium necrophorum)
- infectious necrotic hepatits (clostridium novyi type b)
- bacillary haemoglobinuria (clostridium haemolyticum)
tyzzers disease (clostridium piliforme)
What parasites can cause hepatitis?
strongyle migration in horse
2 problems of the gall bladder?
2 problems of the biliary tree