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year 3 GIT > pathology of GIT > Flashcards

Flashcards in pathology of GIT Deck (29):
1

3 conditions associated with abdominal pain

-torsion / volvulus
-obstruction (internal - FB, tumour, intussusception) (external - strangulating lipoma)
-rupture

2

Signs of upper intestinal obstruction

acute and severe
fluid and gas distension, vom, metabolic alkalosis, dehydration, uraemia

3

Signs of lower intestinal obstruction

less acute
less distension
metabolic acidosis, vom, ulceration and infarction

4

conditions associated with acute diarrhoea (5)

- altered ep cell transport
- altered structure / permeability
- osmotic effects
- altered motility
- damage to colonic mucosa

5

Conditions associated with chronic diarrhoea and/or weight loss (7)

bacterial overgrowth
protein losing enteropathy
IBD
lymphangiectasia
endoparasitism
neoplasia
grass sickness

6

Two broad categories of chronic dia

maldigestion - liver or pancreas
malabsorption- intesine

7

How does bacterial overgrowth cause dia

- bile salt deficiency
- trauma to int
- nutrient consumption

---- malabsorption

8

What is protein losing enteropathy?

When mucosa is damaged so has increased permeability so proteins ( esp albumin) leak into the lumen and decrease blood osmotic pressure

cause - IBD, lymphangiectasia, neoplasia

signs - dia, vom, anorexia, weight loss, ascites, pleural effusion, peripheral oedema

9

What are the different types of IBD?

lymphoplasmocytic
eosinophilic
granulomatus (macrophages present - johnes)

due to mutated PRR on enterocytes so commensals / food seen as pathogens

10

what is lymphangiectasia?

block and distended lymph vessels - affects absorption

11

What is grass sickness?

a functional disease in hindgut fermenters from clostridium toxin which paralyses the ANS so no peristaltic movements

12

How do you diagnose Johnes disease?

Ziel - Nielhson stain
host tissue - blue
mycobactera - red

13

What is the name of a smooth muscle neoplasm?

leiomyoma

14

What lesions are seen with grass sickness?

caecal distension (food - impaction)
stomach dilates and can rupture
acid reflux of gut contents can ulcerate the oesophagus

15

What do you see with cyathostomins in horse colons?

pock marks - parasite larvae

16

9 main liver pathologies

- congenital and developmental disorders
- circulatory disorders
- disorders of pigmentation
- degenerative disease
- abnormal deposits and accumulations
- necrosis
- fibrosis
- inflammation
- toxic liver disease

17

6 liver congenital and developmental disorders

- portosystemic shunt ( congenital or acquired)
- congenital cysts
- displacements (congenital of acquired)
- tension lipidosis (focal areas of subcapsular fatty change)
- capsular fibrosis (fibrous tags on surface)
- telangiectosis (foci of sinusoidal dilation)

18

1 liver circulatory disorder

passive venous congestion (from right sided heart failure, nutmeg liver)

19

4 disorders of pigmentation - liver

melanin
haemosiderin
bile
lipofuscin / ceroid

20

2 types of degenerative disease - liver

vacuolar hepatopathies ( hydropic change , glycogen accumulation)

lipidosis

21

2 types of liver accumulative disease

- lysosomal storage disease
- amyloidosis

22

3 types of liver inflammation

cholangiohepatitis - parenchyma and bile ducts
cholangitis - bile ducts
hepatitis - liver parenchyma

23

3 broad causes of hepatitis

viral
bacterial
parasitic

24

What viruses can cause hepatitis

adenovirus - infectious canine hepatitis
herpesvirus
coronavirus -FIP

25

what bacteria cause hepatitis

- bacillary necrosis (Fusobacterium necrophorum)
- infectious necrotic hepatits (clostridium novyi type b)
- bacillary haemoglobinuria (clostridium haemolyticum)
tyzzers disease (clostridium piliforme)
leptospirosis
salmonellosis

26

What parasites can cause hepatitis?

liver fluke
ascaris suum
strongyle migration in horse

27

2 problems of the gall bladder?

- cholecystitis
- choleliths

28

2 problems of the biliary tree

obstruction
rupture

29

3 problems with the exocrine pancreas

- developmental abnormalities ( hypoplasia)
- pancreatitis
- hyperplase