Differential diagnosis of left sided pings in cattle Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Differential diagnosis of left sided pings in cattle Deck (15):

DDx- left sided pings in cattle - 5

-Free gas bloat
-rumen collapse (rumen void syndrome)
-Vagal indigestion


When does rumen collapse occur?

Cattle suffering severe inflammatory disease - usually septic metritis, also mastitis, pneumonia


Signs - rumen colapse

shrinkage in rumen size
large dull ping percussed over dorsal left abdomen that lacks resonance of LDA ping, not tingling on ballotment, dorsal sac has shrunk away from body wall. confirmed by rectal exam


Treatment - rumen collapse - 2

-Not surgical - treat primary disease.
-large volumes of isotonic fluid orally via stomach tube
rumen stimulants e.g. vetrumex


LDA - aetiology

-first 6 weeks of lactation in high yielding dairy cows on winter rations
-approx 5% cases occur before calving (4-7mo gestation)
-main reason = reduction in abomasal motility, sometimes complete atony
-abomasum may get displaced because rumen is small after calving (no tendency to spontaneously correct)
-once displaced --> gas production causes distension and further displacement. Ingesta continue to pass through but at a slower rate


Location of LDA

Abomasum usually between left cranial body wall and rumen and all stomachs rotate clockwise (from behind)


3 factors that may reduce abomasal motility

1 high concentrate/low fibre rations
2 periparturient disease
3 genetic selection


2 common LDA presentations

1.) high yielding cow fed too much concentrate too soon after calving
2.) heifer, often with a metritis following dystocia resulting in a reduced DMI exacerbated possibly by illness and bullying


Clinical signs - LDA (10 - 3 most common)

-recently calved cow/heifer
-sudden onset inappetence/anorexia
-milk drop (30-50% reduction)

-rapid loss of condition
-depressed ruminal activity
-temp (normal or slightly raised)
-if ketosis and/or fatty liver are present, the animal may present as a nervous ketosis so don't miss the LDA
-last rib on LHS may be sprung and the rumen is difficult to palpate


Diagnosis - LDA

AUSCULTATION/PERSCUSSION - upper part of last intercostal space on LHS, flick last rib and listen for ping. Repeat moving stethoscope cranially and ventrally and return dorsally. DO whole left flank. Always 'tinkle' when you hear the 'ping'. All true LDAs tinkle AND ping.


What is a 'swinger'?

When a LDA changes the next day to a RDA. Also some correct spontaneously for a time before recurring so always check the ping is still there before surgery.


Clinical pathology - LDA - 3 (Why do these show?)

Hypochloraemic, hypokalaemic metabolic acidosis (due to continued secretion of HCl which isn't reabsorbed and the acidosis causing K to be driven into cells and sequestered in abomasum and renally excreted.

Severe ketosis (positive Rothera's test) with raised blood butyrate (often)

Paradoxical aciduria (K ion depletion is so great that H ions are exreted despite need to conserve them).


Treatment - LDA - 2 main types

- CONSERVATIVE (low value animal or other disease severe): rolling combined with medical treatment such as buscopan compositum, Metoclopramide, instant coffee or potassium chloride.
- SURGICAL CORRECTION: blind toggle pin abomasopexy, left flank omentopexy, right paramediuan abomasopexy. Choice of technique is yours. Beware of the limitations and complications of each. Success rates should approach 100%.


What post-op care should be given to LDA surgical cases?

Don't allow cow to go back onto full concentrate rations. Fill rumen with hay or silage for at least 4 days then slowly introduce concentrate component and build this up.


Prevention - LDA - 3

Reduce levels of concentrate that is fed soon after calving, increase forage and long fibre intakes.