Difficulties faced by the Weimar Republic Flashcards Preview

GCSE History (Edexcel) - Weimar and Nazi Germany > Difficulties faced by the Weimar Republic > Flashcards

Flashcards in Difficulties faced by the Weimar Republic Deck (149)
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1
Q

What economic problems did Germany suffer after the First World War?

A

Bankrupt with a debt of 150 billion marks. Spent all its gold on weapons and had no money left

2
Q

What was the impact of allies blockading German ports? (First World War)

A

Supplies couldn’t be imported - lead to food shortages

3
Q

How many German men were lost in the First World War?

A

2 million

4
Q

How did German people feel about the First World War?

A

They became increasingly angry

5
Q

What political problems were caused by the First World War?

A

Extremist groups wanted a revolution and moderate groups wanted to negotiate an end to the war - wanted removal of the Kaiser

6
Q

What was the abdication of the Kaiser known as?

A

The German Revolution

7
Q

Who was the Kaiser?

A

The German Emperor

8
Q

What was the army’s attitude towards the Kaiser?

A

The army lost faith in him which forced him to abdicate

9
Q

What happened when the Kaiser Abdicated?

A

He was blamed for the terrible impact of the war on German people. There were many violent uprisings, workers’ strikes and riots throughout Germany. (Naval bases, Berlin, etc)

10
Q

What political problems did the New Weimar Government face?

A

They had to figure out how to end Germany’s involvement in the First World War

11
Q

What did the New Weimar Government sign in November 1918?

A

The armistice

12
Q

Did the New Weimar Government have any choice in signing the armistice?

A

No - they had to sign the armistice

13
Q

Were the terms of the armistice popular?

A

No - they were very unpopular

14
Q

Give 3 of the terms of the armistice.

A

Any 3 from Allied troops could occupy parts of Germany, agreed to pay compensation for damage caused during the war, agreed to lose many of its weapons including naval ships, had to accept the blame for the war.

15
Q

How did people see the new democratic Government in Germany?

A

Say it as betraying Germany - they believed the Government didn’t need to sign the armistice because the army was not defeated. Called them ‘November Criminals’ and said Germany had been ‘stabbed in the back’ (Dolchstoss) by politicians

16
Q

What did Germans call the New Weimar Government when they felt Germany had been ‘stabbed in the back’?

A

November Criminals

17
Q

Dolchstoss

A

‘stabbed in the back’

18
Q

How did people in Reichstag feel about the New Weimar Government?

A

There was a lot of disagreement - the new Government was attacked by the nationalist right-wing (DNVP) and communist left-wing (KPD) parties. They wanted to destroy the new Weimar Republic

19
Q

What was the Nationalist right-wing party called in Reichstag during the New Weimar Government?

A

DNVP

20
Q

What was the Communist left-wing party called in Reichstag during the New Weimar Government?

A

KPD

21
Q

Why couldn’t the New Weimar Government meet in Berlin?

A

There was an uprising there

22
Q

Where did the New Weimar Government meet instead of Berlin?

A

Weimar

23
Q

Why did the New Weimar Government become known as the ‘Weimar Republic’?

A

They couldn’t meet in Berlin - they had to meet in Weimar instead. Germany didn’t have a monarch

24
Q

Were Spartacists left-wing or right-wing?

A

Left-wing

25
Q

Were Spartacists Capitalist or Communist?

A

Communist

26
Q

What did the Spartacists want?

A

A Communist dictatorship - wanted to take wealth from rich and create a more equal country

27
Q

What were the Spartacists inspired by?

A

The Bolshevik revolution in Russia

28
Q

Name one Spartacist leader

A

Rosa Luxemburg or Karl Liebknecht

29
Q

What did the Spartacists do in Berlin in 1919?

A

Attempted to seize power through a violent revolution. There was lots of street fighting

30
Q

True or false: There was a large threat from the Spartacists

A

False, threat from the Spartacists was not that great

31
Q

Who were the Spartacists defeated by?

A

Freikorps - they shot and killed many Spartacists including leaders, whose bodies were dumped in a ditch

32
Q

Who were the Freikorps?

A

Group of ex-soldiers

33
Q

True or false: The Government was shown to be weak as a result of the Spartacists

A

True - they were only able to restore control through using violence and undemocratic methods

34
Q

Who were the Kapp Putsch lead by?

A

Wolfgang Kapp and the Freikorps

35
Q

Who was the Freikorps’ leader in 1920?

A

General Luttwitz

36
Q

True or False: The Kapp Putsch was a left-wing attempt to take power

A

False, it was an attempt by right-wing extremists

37
Q

Who were right-wing extremists?

A

Nationalists who hated democracy, the new Weimar Republic and the Communists

38
Q

Who did the right-wing extremists want to bring back?

A

The Kaiser

39
Q

What happened at the Kapp Putsch?

A

Tried to seize power in Berlin

40
Q

Was the threat from the Kapp Putsch temporary?

A

Yes - it seemed to be temporary as the putsch failed

41
Q

How did the Government respond to the Kapp Putsch?

A

Asked the workers to go on strike

42
Q

What happened as a result of workers going on strike as a result of the Kapp Putsch?

A

Berlin ground to a halt and many Freikorps fled or were arrested. The Government had to deal with yet another problem by asking for help from others - was unable to count on support from the army

43
Q

Were the Freikorps still a threat after the Kapp Putsch?

A

Yes - they killed a number of politicians who had signed the armistice and Treaty of Versailles including Matthias Erzberger (a leading Jewish politician).

44
Q

How many political murders were committed after the Kapp Putsch by right-wing groups such as the Feikorps?

A

Over 300

45
Q

When was the Munich Putsch?

A

1923

46
Q

What was the Munich Putsch?

A

Another violent right-wing attempt to seize power

47
Q

Who was the Munich Putsch lead by?

A

Hitler

48
Q

What did Hitler want with the Munich Putsch?

A

His Nazis to take power in Munich and march to Berlin to take over the Government

49
Q

How did the Munich Putsch start?

A

Armed Nazi Stormtroopers stormed into a political meeting in a Munich beer-hall

50
Q

Why did the Stoomtroopers storm into the beer-hall?

A

To intimidate those inside.

51
Q

What did Hitler declare at the Munich Putsch?

A

He was taking over the local Government and would then take control of the whole country

52
Q

Did the army support Hitler at the Munich Putsch?

A

No

53
Q

Who supported Hitler at the Munich Putsch?

A

General Ludendorff

54
Q

How many Nazis did the police shoot dead as a result of the Munich Putsch?

A

16

55
Q

What happened to the Nazis after the Munich Putsch?

A

Hitler and other Nazis were jailed and the Nazi Party was banned for a few years

56
Q

Was the Munich Putsch a success for the Nazis?

A

It appeared to be a failure however can be seen as an important turning point in the future

57
Q

Who was the Treaty of Versailles signed by?

A

Chancellor Ebert

58
Q

True or False: The Treaty of Versailles was signed 2 years after Chancellor Ebert took power

A

False - it was only a few months after

59
Q

Where was the Treaty of Versailles signed?

A

Versailles - just outside of Paris where the Paris Peace conference was held

60
Q

When was the Treaty of Versailles signed?

A

1919 - just after WW1 had finished

61
Q

Did Germany choose to sign the Treaty of Versailles?

A

No - they had no choice but to sign the Treaty as they were not in a position to restart any fighting

62
Q

What were politicians who signed the Treaty of Versailles told?

A

They were not allowed any say over the terms and should accept any punishment

63
Q

How did Germans feel about the Treaty of Versailles?

A

They were extremely angry

64
Q

What did Germans call the Treaty of Versailles?

A

‘Diktat’ - they felt they had been ‘dictated to’

65
Q

Diktat

A

The Germans felt they had been ‘dictated to’

66
Q

Did the Treaty of Versailles help problems caused by the First World War?

A

No - it exacerbated the awful problems and made Germany pay £6.6 billion in reparations for the war damages caused to Britain, France and Belgium

67
Q

How much money in reparations did Germany have to pay?

A

£6.6 billion

68
Q

Why did Germany have to pay reparations?

A

For damages caused to Britain, France and Belgium as a result of WW1

69
Q

What colonies did Germany lose as a result of the Treaty of Versailles?

A

Cameroon and Samoa

70
Q

Which country was Cameroon given to?

A

France

71
Q

Which country was Samoa given to?

A

Britain

72
Q

Germany lost the Upper _______ as a result of the Treaty of Versailles

A

Silesia

73
Q

Who did Germany lose the Upper Silesia to?

A

Poland

74
Q

What did France have the right to do in Saar?

A

Mine coal

75
Q

Saar and Danzig were under ______ __ _______ control

A

League of Nations

76
Q

Why was losing areas of Saar and Danzig a big economic loss for Germany?

A

They lost valuable areas that could have brought more money into the country and helped it recover

77
Q

Saar

A

Coal

78
Q

Danzig

A

Port

79
Q

What did Germany’s loss of valuable land mean in terms of its reputation?

A

Damaged Germany’s prestige and reduced its influence in other parts of the world

80
Q

What happened to taxes and trade after the Treaty of Versailles?

A

Fewer taxes were being paid and fewer goods and resources were being sold to other countries

81
Q

What effect did the decline in tax payments and trade have on Germany?

A

Meant the Government had less money than it otherwise would have - this did not help improve the country’s bankruptcy and made paying of reparations much more difficult

82
Q

Germany gained/lost power as a result of the Treaty of Versailles

A

Lost. They were weakened in comparison with other countries

83
Q

Why was Germany vulnerable to a French attack?

A

Couldn’t put troops in the Rhineland. The armed forces were severely limited

84
Q

Did Germany believe their country could defend itself?

A

No

85
Q

How many soldiers was the army reduced to as a result of the Treaty of Versailles?

A

100,000 with no conscription (not compulsory)

86
Q

How many soldiers was the navy reduced to as a result of the Treaty of Versailles?

A

15,000 with only 6 battleships and no submarines?

87
Q

How many submarines did the navy have after the Treaty of Versailles?

A

0

88
Q

How many battleships did the navy have after the Treaty of Versailles?

A

6

89
Q

What happened to the air-force after the Treaty of Versailles?

A

It was banned

90
Q

Was the Government damaged after the Treaty of Versailles?

A

Yes - the Government was badly damaged as many Germans saw the new democratic Government as betraying Germany yet again

91
Q

What previous belief did the Treaty of Versailles reinforce about German people’s attitude towards the new democratic Government in Germany?

A

That the Government had betrayed them. ‘November Criminals’

92
Q

‘November Criminals’

A

German people felt the Government had betrayed them

93
Q

What did the ‘November Criminals’ attitude encourage?

A

Kapp and the Feikorps to try and seize power

94
Q

Why were Matthias Erzberger and a number of other politicians murdered?

A

For ‘betraying’ Germany

95
Q

What lead to the new Weimar Constitution?

A

The Kaiser and the rich having all the power

96
Q

What was the new Weimar Constitution?

A

A Document that set out how Germany should be governed

97
Q

What did the new Weimar Constitution mean?

A

Germany was to be a democratic and fair country

98
Q

How old did people have to be to vote in the new Weimar Constitution?

A

21 or over

99
Q

Could Women vote in the new Weimar Constitution?

A

Yes

100
Q

What was the voting system called in the new Weimar Constitution?

A

Proportional Representation

101
Q

The Reichstag

A

Parliament

102
Q

What did Proportional Representation mean?

A

If a political party got 10% of the vote it would get 10% of the seats in the Reichstag, etc

103
Q

What was the intention with Proportional Representation?

A

A fair voting system

104
Q

What was the problem with Proportional Representation?

A

No party ever got majority of the seats

105
Q

What was the problem with no party ever getting a majority of the seats as a result of Proportional Representation?

A

A majority was needed to be able to pass laws and rule the country effectively which lead to coalition Governments which consisted of parties which represented very different types of people (Rich, poor, businessmen, workers, etc). They couldn’t agree very much

106
Q

How many Governments were there between 1919-23?

A

9 Governments in 4 years

107
Q

How did people feel about the new democracy as a result of Proportional Representation?

A

Became increasingly fed up

108
Q

What was the President given in the new Weimar Constitution?

A

New powers

109
Q

What ability did the President have in the new Weimar Constitution?

A

Was able to choose the Chancellor (Prime Minister). A bad choice would be terrible for Germany

110
Q

Who did President Hindenburg appoint as Chancellor in 1923?

A

Hitler

111
Q

Article 48

A

The President’s emergency powers

112
Q

What did Article 48 mean?

A

The President could pass laws by himself called decrees

113
Q

What was the risk for Germany with Article 48?

A

If the President undermined democracy and the Reichstag it would be a disaster

114
Q

Decree for the Protection of People and State

A

One of President Hindenburg’s decrees as a result of Article 48

115
Q

What did Germany miss in 1922?

A

Some reparations payments - they were having difficulties paying

116
Q

Did France and Belgium believe Germany’s excuses for missing some reparations payments?

A

No

117
Q

Where had Germany attacked in 1914?

A

France and Belgium

118
Q

Where did French and Belgium troops occupy in 1923?

A

The Ruhr

119
Q

What was the Ruhr?

A

A rich industrial area of Germany

120
Q

Why did the French and Belgium troops go to the Ruhr?

A

Went to take resources as payment for the missing reparations

121
Q

Passive resistance

A

The workers in the Ruhr area refused to work or co-operate with what they saw as invaders - the Government organised a general strike

122
Q

What happened as a result of passive resistance?

A

Germany weren’t producing as many resources or manufactured goods and German businesses were selling fewer goods, exporting less and less taxes were paid

123
Q

What was a problem with the strike as a result of the Ruhr Occupation for Germany?

A

The workers had been told to strike and therefore had to be paid - this wasn’t a normal strike

124
Q

Could the Government afford to pay the strikers in the Ruhr?

A

No

125
Q

What did the Government do to pay the strikers in the Ruhr?

A

Print more money - this lead to Hyperinflation

126
Q

What did Hitler think at the peak of Hyperinflation?

A

He thought he could launch his putsch attempt as he (wrongly) believed people would be so fed up that they would support him

127
Q

How much did 1 egg cost in 1913?

A

0.008 marks

128
Q

How much did 1 egg cost in Summer 1923?

A

5,000 marks

129
Q

How much did 1 egg cost in November 1923?

A

80,000,000,000 marks

130
Q

How much did 1kg butter cost in 1913?

A

2.70 marks

131
Q

How much did 1kg butter cost in Summer 1923?

A

26,000 marks

132
Q

How much did 1kg butter cost in November 1923?

A

6,000,000,000,000 marks

133
Q

How much did 1kg beef cost in 1913?

A

1.75 marks

134
Q

How much did 1kg beef cost in Summer 1923?

A

18,000 marks

135
Q

How much did 1kg beef cost in November 1923?

A

5,600,000,000,000 marks

136
Q

How much did a pair of shoes cost in 1913?

A

12.00 marks

137
Q

How much did a pair of shoes cost in Summer 1923?

A

1,000,000 marks

138
Q

How much did a pair of shoes cost in November 1923?

A

32,000,000,000,000 marks

139
Q

How did hyperinflation affect people with debts?

A

They were able to pay them off as the value became worthless

140
Q

How did hyperinflation affect landowners and property owners?

A

They did not suffer as their wealth was in land and property

141
Q

How did hyperinflation affect the wealthy?

A

They were not badly affected

142
Q

How did hyperinflation affect farmers?

A

They did not suffer as much as others because people still needed food - as the demand for food continued they were not badly affected

143
Q

How did hyperinflation affect banks?

A

They really struggled as they had lent money - the money they received when people paid back their loans was not worth the same value as the money had lent

144
Q

How did hyperinflation affect people on fixed incomes?

A

They could not keep up with the rising prices - they couldn’t afford to buy anything

145
Q

How did hyperinflation affect people with cash savings?

A

Found their savings were worthless

146
Q

How did hyperinflation affect wages?

A

Wages couldn’t keep up with the rising prices - people ended up worse off

147
Q

What was people’s attitude toward the Weimar Government like after hyperinflation?

A

Many lost faith in them and there were extremist attempts to take power

148
Q

Where did Communists take over as a result of hyperinflation?

A

Saxony

149
Q

What was the Putsch attempt by Hitler after hyperinflation?

A

The Munich Putsch