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Flashcards in Digestive Glands - Cole Deck (33)
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1

Functions of digestive glands?

Lubricative, protective, digestive and absorptive functions

2

3 major glands

Salivary
Exocrine pancreas
Liver (gallbladder)

3

4 ways exocrine glands are classified

1. Structure of duct - simple and branched
2. Structure of secretory units - tubular or alveolar (acinar)
3. Secretory product - mucus or serous
4. Secretory mechanism - merocrine, holocrine, apocrine

4

3 Major salivary glands

1. Parotid - 25% of saliva - amylase rich
2. Submandibular - 70% of saliva
3. Sublingual

5

Saliva

.5 liters a day
Contains proteins, glycoproteins (mucus), ions, water and IgA
Under the control of the ANS
Functions: lubricate, protect, digestive

6

Parotid gland

Serous acinus
Secretes zymogen
Clears bacteria before the bastids get in the body
On teeth

7

Submandibular gland

Mixed acinus - serous and mucus
Serous demilunes
Secrete mucin that protects and lubricates

8

Sublingual gland

Mucous acinus
Mixed mucus and serous
Mucus acini predominate
No long ducts, multiple small

9

What makes IgA in saliva?

Plasma cells

10

Enzymes of the parotid gland?

Amylase, peroxidase, lysozyme

11

Clinical significance of mumps, rabies and tumors

Parotid gland is primary target for all 3
Mumps - transient swelling
Most frequent site of slow-growing benign salivary glands
Surgery - protect facial nerve

12

Exocrine Pancreas

Pancreas is combined endocrine and exocrine
Functional unit - acinus
Centroacinar cells - low cuboidal epithelial lining the intercalated duct

13

Endocrine Pancreas

Islet of Langerhans - 2% of pancreas volume
Main function - regulation of glucose metabolism by hormones secreted into the bloodstream

14

Centroacinar cells

Pancreas
Secretin controls
Secrete mucin

15

Pancreatic secretions

Cholecysokinin (CCK) and secretin increase flow of pancreatic fluid
CCK stimulates release of zymogen
Diet affects what is secreted - ex. if eat pale - proteases

16

Secretin

Can act on cells in duct to get them to secrete bicarbonate and water

17

If you eat a paleo diet high in protein, pancreas will secrete mainly?

Proteases

18

If you eat a shit ton of carbs, pancreas will secrete

Amylase - breaks down starch

19

Acute pancreatitis

Premature activation of pancreatic enzymes that start to digest the pancreas
Can be caused by heavy meals and excessive alcohol

20

Liver

Largest gland in body
Blood supplied by: Portal v. (75%) and Hepatic a. (25%)

21

What is the structural and functional unit of liver?

Hepatic lobule (Cole's favorite - not classic lobule or portal lobule)
(Portal triad)

22

Portal triad

Hepatic artery branch
Bile duct
Hepatic portal vein branch

23

Blood flow in the liver

Blood goes from portal triad to central venule
Bile goes from central venule to the portal triad

24

Kupffer cells

Macrophages in the lobule
-break down old RBCs (normally mostly in spleen)

25

Space of Disse

Space between discontinuous cap and hepatocytes
Cap is so leaky that blood goes into the space of disse and is immediately available to hepatocytes and it can absorb what ever it wants

26

Bile canaliculus

Between hepatocytes
-secrete bile

27

Ito cells

Located at intervals within space of Disse
Storage sites for fat and vitamin A

28

Hepatocytes

Functional endocrine and exocrine cell of the liver
Has basolateral domain with abundant microvilli extending into space of Disse
Contain SER

29

Functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum

1. Synthesis of cholesterol and bile salts
2. Glucuronide conjugation of bilirubin, steroids and drugs
3. Breakdown of glycogen into glucose
4. The detoxification of lipid-soluble drugs

30

Bile

Fat absorption
Transports IgA to the intestinal mucosa