Physiology of Smooth Muscle - Karius Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology of Smooth Muscle - Karius Deck (22)
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1

Where is smooth muscle found?

Vasculature (esp arteries)
GI tract
Urogenital tract
Respiratory tract and eye

2

How is smooth muscle different than skeletal muscle?

Thin filaments anchor to dense bodies, more actin
NO troponin
2x as much actin
1/4 amount of myosin
Contains kinase and phosphatase

3

When there is a lot of gap junctions in smooth muscle, what is the result?

Contraction is coordinated
ex. gut

4

Where is smooth muscle more autonomous?

Vasculature
-vs gut that is coordinated by CNS

5

How is the gut innervated?

Intrinsic - sensory and motor neurons , independent of CNS
-ex. gut and trachea
Extrinsic - ANS - allows CNS to control viscera

6

What are the 3 major NT of gut and effects?

ACh - excite smooth muscle in gut
NE or Epi - contraction of vascular smooth m and inhibits gut smooth muscle
NO - major inhibitory on smooth muscle
-acts via cGMP mechanism

7

What type of receptors does smooth muscle have?

Muscarinic cholinergic
Adrenergic (alpha and beta)
(FYI - varicosities)
VS skeletal ACh receptors only

8

2 hormones that can elicit smooth muscle contraction?

Epinephrine
Cholecystokinin

9

What do endothelial cells secrete?

EDRF - endothelium-derived relaxing factor)
-now known to be NO

10

Where does Ca++ come from in smooth muscle?

Extracellular sources - open with binding of ligand
Sarcoplasmic reticulum - open with depolarization

11

Can smooth muscle be activated in the absence of an action potential?

Yes
Because PKC is activated (I think, maybe...)

12

To have sustained contraction of smooth muscle what is required?

Ca++ from extracellular sources

13

What is the first step of muscle contraction?

Increase in intracellular calcium
-from SR or extracellular

14

Step 2 of muscle contraction?

Calcium binds with Calmodulin

15

Step 3 of muscle contraction?

Calmodulin activated MLCK

16

Step 4 of muscle contraction?

MLCK phosphorylates light chain
-smooth m. uses 2 ATP for each cross bridge cycle

17

Step 5 of muscle contraction?

Myosin cross bridge can begin cycle
-2 distinct inorganic phosphates involved - one on light chain, other at myosin head

18

Smooth muscle relaxation

With the inactivation of MLCK, a phosphatase is activated. This phosphatase will remove the Pi from the myosin light chain and allow relaxation

19

The importance of latch mechanism?

Decreases energy utilization by smooth muscle
Makes up for additional ATP used to phosphorylate the light chain in each cycle of smooth muscle contraction

20

Passive tension in smooth muscle

Comes form stretching the membranes (think rubber band)
With every stretch of muscle cell, passive tension increase a little, but as actin and myosin rearrange, the passive tension decreases

21

Actin-myosin in smooth muscle

Not organized, more random
Once myosin heads are free, will interact with a DIFFERENT thin filament
This 1. reduces passive tension by reducing strain
2. allows smooth m. to generate active tension over a wide range of length
Difference from skeletal - does not develop sustained passive tension

22

One of the most interesting things about smooth muscle according to Karius

It is plastic - can change from one cell type to another and back
Common in vasculature - damage signals cells to become fibroblasts that can secrete collagen to repair the damage