Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy 3300 > Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (150):
1

GI components of the pelvic cavity

Large intestine
Anus

2

GI components of the abdominal cavity

Stomach
Small intestines

3

GI components of the head and neck

Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus

4

6 accessory digestive organs

Teeth
Tongue
Salivary glands
Liver
Gall bladder
Pancreas

5

Propulsion

Voluntary and involuntary processes move food through alimentary canal

6

Peristalsis

Forward movement of food along GI tract

7

3 steps in peristalsis

Contraction of circular muscles behind bolus
Contraction of longitudinal muscles ahead of bolus
Contraction of circular layer forces bolus forward

8

Segmentation

Local shimmying on bolus to break it up and mix it with enzymes

9

Mechanical digestion

Physically prepares food-- mixing with saliva and churning in stomach

10

Chemical digestion

Breaks down food into components with enzymes in the mouth and small intestine

11

Mechanoreceptors

Sense stretching of stomach wall and triggers churning

12

Chemoreceptors

Detects acidity, osmolarity and triggers enzyme release

13

3 reflexes initiated by recpetors

Stimulates secretions
Mixing of luminal content
Movement along alimentary canal

14

Absorption

Passage from lumen of GI tract into blood. Mostly at small intestine

15

2 components of the Enteric nervous system

Submucosal nerve plexus
Myenteric nerve plexus

16

Submucosal nerve plexus

Found in submucosa and controls segmentation. Regulates activity of glands and activates smooth muscle of mucosa

17

Myenteric nerve plexus

Found between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the muscularis externa and controls peristalsis

18

Mesentery

Double layer of peritoneum holds GI tract down and contains vascular and neural control, stores fat

19

Lumen

Opening in GI tract (tube)

20

Mucosa

Innermost lumen layer secretes mucus

21

Submucosa

Localized muscle layer in lumen, surrounds mucosa

22

Muscularis Externa

Inner circular layer, outer longitudinal layer, with a myenteric nerve plexus between

23

Serosa

Outermost lumen layer contributes to the mesentery

24

Parietal peritoneum

Walls of abdomen and under diaphragm

25

Visceral Peritoneum

Covers organs

26

Peritoneal Cavity

Potential space between parietal and visceral layers

27

Dorsal mesentery

Starts at the back wall and attaches to an organ

28

Ventral mesentery

Connects two organs, or an organ to the front wall

29

Retroperitoneal

Organs that stick to the posterior abdominal wall, vascular connection through mesentery

30

6 retroperitoneal structures

Most of pancreas
Kidneys
Adrenal glands
Duodenum
Part of large intestine
Aorta and IVC

31

Lesser Omentum

Ventral mesentery from the lesser curvature of the stomach to the inferior border of the liver

32

Greater omentum

Dorsal mesentery connects greater curvature of the stomach to the posterior wall. Goes around the small intestine and transverse colon

33

Falciform ligament

Ventral mesentery attaches superior surface of liver to the anterior abdominal wall

34

3 branches of abdominal aorta supplying organs

Celiac trunk
Superior mesenteric artery
Inferior mesenteric artery

35

Gingivae

Gums

36

Labial frenulum

Connects teeth to gums

37

Lingual frenulum

Connects tongue to gums

38

Vestibule

Space between lips and teeth

39

Tongue

Interlacing bundles of skeletal muscle

40

Filiform papillae

Surface roughness of tongue manipulates food, smallest and most numerous

41

Circumvallate papillae

Large 10-12 at back of the tongue, contains taste buds, first sensations of amylase

42

Sulcus terminalis

Separates tongue into portions where different nerves innervate-- 2/3 oral cavity (facial nerve), 1/3 oropharynx (hypoglossal) -- covered by lingual tonsil

43

Intrinsic tongue muscle

Shapes tongue but does not change position

44

Extrinsic tongue muscle

Alters tongue position (protrusion, retraction, side-to-side)

45

Adult dental formula

2I, IC, 2PM, 3M x2= 32 teeth

46

Deciduous dental formula

2I, 1C, 2M

47

Root of tooth

Anchored to bony components of oral cavity

48

Dentin

Bulk of the tooth

49

Pulp cavity

Filled with loos connective tissue, vascular and nervous supply

50

Cementum

Calcified material for anchoring

51

Periodontal ligament

Extensions from tooth into bone

52

Gomphosis joint

Fibrous joint between periodontal ligament and cementum

53

Saliva

Solvent that digests starch-- amylase

54

How much saliva do we produce a day?

1- 1.5 L

55

Salivary glands

3 pairs of extrinsic glands innervated by the parasympathetic NS

56

Buccal glands

Intrinsic salivary glands

57

Parotid glands

Exocrine gland anterior to ear, between masseter muscle and skin. Opens into vestibule near second upper molar

58

Which nerve innervates the parotid gland

9

59

Submandibular gland

Along medial aspect of body of the mandible and opens at base of lingual frenulum

60

Which nerve innervates the submandibular gland

7

61

Sublingual gland

Anterior to submandibular gland, opens via 10-12 ducts beneath tongue

62

Which nerve innervates the sublingual gland

7

63

Esophagus

Muscular tube, 25 cm in length

64

Where does the esophagus join the stomach

Cardiac orifice (sphincter near the heart)

65

Empty esophagus

Mucosa and submucosa are in longitudinal folds

66

Full esophagus

Folds flatten and trachealis muscle allows expanding

67

Esophagus musculature

Upper-- skeletal muscle
Middle-- mixed smooth and skeletal
Lower-- smooth muscle

68

Esophagus blood supply

Cervical region-- inferior thyroid artery
Abdominal region-- left gastric artery

69

GERD

Gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Weakening of muscle compromises cardiac sphincters ability to stay permanently contracted

70

Pyrosis

Heart burn

71

Dysphagia

Painful eating

72

Chyme

Gastric secretions and food

73

Rugae

Longitudinal folds allow stomach to expand

74

Where does the stomach empty into

Duodenum

75

Pyloric region

Distal end of stomach

76

Fundus

Top of stomach

77

Cardia

Tube in heart for cardiac sphincter

78

Sphincters

Made by circular layer of muscularis externa

79

3 layers of the muscularis externa of the stomach

Longitudinal
Circular
Oblique

80

Oblique layer

Innermost layer contributes to churning

81

3 vessels supplying stomach

Celiac trunk
Right gastric artery
Gastroduodenal artery

82

How many unpaired vessels branch off the abdominal aorta?

3

83

3 branches of the celiac trunk

Left gastric-- lesser curvature
Splenic--greater curvature
Hepatic

84

Right gastric artery

Completes blood supply to lesser curvature

85

Gastroduodenal artery

Stomach, intestines and greater curvature

86

Intrinsic factor

Glycoprotein to absorb vitamin B12

87

Gastric motility

Continually mix food with gastric juice

88

Small intestine

3m long with 3 regions

89

Duodenum

Shortest section, C shaped and retroperitoneal. Superior, descending, horizontal and ascending parts

90

2 ducts in duodenum

Common bile duct
Pancreatic duct

91

Common bile duct

Bile from liver/gall bladder regulated in duodenum

92

Pancreatic duct

Pancreatic secretions

93

2 vessels supplying the duodenum

Celiac trunk
Superior mesentery

94

Peptic ulcer disease

Erosion of the lining of stomach or small intestine, usually gastric or duodenal

95

3 causes of ulcers

Heliobacter pylori
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
Hyper secretion of HCl

96

Erosion ulcer

Innermost mucosa layer is compromised

97

Acute ulcer

Perforated up to the oblique layer

98

Perforating ulcer

Outermost serosa is compromised and stomach contents leak into abdominal cavity

99

Jejunum

Main site of absorption. Larger lumen with greater vasculature and more folds

100

Ileum

Terminal portion with thinner walls, fewer folds and less vasculature

101

Ileocecal valve

Empties ileum contents into cecum

102

Large intestine

Extends from ileocecal valve to anus. Half the lengt, but greater diameter than small intestine

103

5 parts of the large intestine

Cecum
Ascending colon
Transverse
Descending
Sigmoid

104

Hepatic flexure

Right sight of large intestine folds over liver

105

Splenic flexure

Left side of large intestine folds over spleen

106

Teniae Coli

Three longitudinal ribbons of smooth muscle on the outside of the large intestine. Mesocolic, Free, omental

107

Haustra

Teniae coli contract length wise to produce bulges in the colon

108

Omental appendicies

Small pouches of peritoneum filled with fat, along the colon but absent in the rectum

109

Parts of the large intestine supplied by superior mesenteric artery

Ascending and transverse colon

110

Parts of the large intestine supplied by inferior mesenteric artery

Descending
Sigmoid
Rectum

111

Rectum

Last 20 cm, anterior to sacrum and attached to perineum

112

Anal canal

Opening containing internal and external anal sphincters

113

Levator Ani

Opens sphincter during defecation

114

Crohn's disease

Chronic inflammatory disease leading to mucosal ulceration

115

Areas effected by Crohns

50% ileum/ascending
30% ileum/jejunum
20% large intestine

116

Transumbilical plane

Horizontal, through umbilicus-- L3/L4 vertebrae

117

Median plane

Longitudinal through body cutting it into left and right

118

RUQ (9)

Right lobe of liver
Gall bladder
Duodenum
Head of pancreas
Kidney
Adrenal gland
Hepatic flexure
Transverse colon
Pyoric region of stomach

119

LUQ (7)

Liver
Body and tail of pancreas
Kidney
Adrenal gland
Splenic flexure
Transverse colon
Most of stomach

120

RLQ (7)

Cecum
Appendix
Ileum
Ascending colon
Ovary
Uterine tube
Ureter

121

LLQ (6)

Sigmoid colon
Jejunum
Descending colon
Ovary
Uterine tube
Ureter

122

Bile

Helps break down fat

123

Liver

Largest internal organ, processes nutrients and secrets bile

124

4 liver lobes

Right
Left
Quadrate
Caudate-- more posterior, above porta hepatis

125

Falciform ligament

Ventral mesentery separates right and left lobes of liver

126

Ligamentum teres

Dangly bit of liver attaches to anterior wall

127

Porta hepatis

(portal triad) Hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct

128

5 functions of the liver

Process nutrients in blood
Store glucose and glycogen
Store fat soluble vitamins
Remove toxic substances
Produce bile

129

Hepatocytes

Liver cells produce bile

130

Hepatic portal vein

Union of superior mesenteric and splenic veins. Deliver nutrients to liver for processing and storage

131

Liver lobule

Hepatic portal triads at the periphery and a central vein in the middle

132

Canniculus

First and smallest branch of bile collecting system. Travels in opposite direction as blood

133

Sinusioid

Blood filled space between walls of hepatocytes

134

Kupffer Cells

Immune like cells in between walls of hepatocytes, destroy dead blood cells and detoxify

135

Hepatic plate

Sinusoid and walls of liver cells that surround them. 1-2 hepatocytes thick, separated by sinusoid

136

Blood in liver

70% deoxygenated, but nutrient rich blood from portal vein
30% is oxygenated from hepatic artery

137

Gall bladder

Attached under the right lobe of liver, concentrates and stores bile

138

Fundus of gall bladder

Big superior bulge, followed by body and neck

139

Common bile duct

Cystic duct carries stored bile to join with common hepatic duct

140

Cholecystitis

Inflammation of gall bladder

141

Gall stones

Crystallization of bile

142

3 locations of gall stones

Gall bladder
Neck or cystic duct
Common bile duct

143

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Stimulated by chyme entering duodenum, releases pancreatic juices and bile, relaxes hepatopancreatic sphincter

144

Endocrine function of pancreas

Pancreatic islets produce insulin and glucagon

145

Exocrine function of pancreas

Pancreatic acini make juices

146

Acinar cells

Secrete 1L of digestive enzymes a day

147

Secretin

Released in response to HCl, bicarbonate rich pancreatic juice neutralizes acid

148

What does protein and fat trigger release of

Protein-- enzymes
Fat-- bile

149

Gall bladder blood supply

Branches of hepatic artery

150

Pancreas blood supply

Splenic artery supplies distal end, superior mesenteric supplies head and neck