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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (126):
1

Two types of glands in endocrine system

Exocrine
Endocrine

2

Exocrine glands

Non-hormonal secretions transported through ducts to membrane surfaces of cells

3

Endocrine glands

Duct-less and secrete hormones into surrounding tissue fluid

4

Which type of gland is more vascular

Endocrine

5

Which type of gland targets specific organs

Endocrine

6

Pure endocrine organ

Only purpose is to secrete hormones

7

Hypothalamus

Produces molecules that control hormones
- Link between nervous and endocrine systems
- Located in temporal lobe

8

Amino acid based hormones

Protein based hormones that exert signalling effects once bound to receptor on cell surface

9

Steroids

Derived from cholesterol

10

Are AA or steroids more lipid soluble?

Steroids

11

Ae most hormones AA or steroids?

AA

12

Activation of target cell receptors depends on 3 factors

Blood level of hormone
Number of receptors on cell
Affinity between hormone and receptor

13

What is an example of a positive feedback system

Estrogen stimulates oxytocin release during childbirth

14

3 types of regulatory stimuli

Humoral
Neural
Hormonal

15

Humoral

Changing blood levels of molecules

16

Neural

Nerves stimulate hormone release

17

Hormonal

Release in response to hormones from other endocrine organs

18

Parathyroid Hormone

Responds to low levels of calcium in the blood (humoral response)

19

Location of the pituitary gland

Hypophyseal fossa in the sphenoid bone

20

What structure connects the pituitary to the hypothalamus

Infundibulum

21

How many hormones does the pituitary secrete

9

22

What is the posterior lobe of the pituitary made of

Neural tissue

23

What is the anterior lobe of the pituitary made of

Glandular tissue

24

3 structures that compose the Neuropophysis

Hypothalamus
Posterior pituitary
Infundibulum

25

What is the anterior boundary of the pituitary

Optic chiasma

26

What is the mammillary body involved in

Memory processing

27

Order of blood vessels supplying the anterior pituitary

Internal carotid artery
Superior hypophyseal artery
Anterior lobe
Dural sinuses and hypophyseal vein

28

8 Products of the pituitary

Oxytocin
ADH
ACTH
TSH
FSH
LH
GH
PRL

29

Order of hypophyseal portal system

Hypothalamus sends releasing/inhibiting factors
Hormones go to primary capillaries
Hypophyseal portal veins
Secondary capillaries
Secretory cells

30

What blood vessel supplies the posterior pitutitary

Inferior hypophyseal artery

31

Where does the inferior hypophyseal artery drain

Capillary plexus of the infundibular process

32

Which pituitary lobe is part of the brain?

Posterior

33

Hypophyseal tract

Axons from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei maintain a connection between the posterior pituitary and the hypothalamus

34

Supraoptic Nucleus

Nucleus in hypothalamus that produces ADH (vasopressin) which enhances water absorption

35

Paraventricular nucleus

Nucleus in the hypothalamus that project to pituitary and release oxytocin and ADH

36

Location of PVN

In the hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle

37

What 2 hormones are released during childbirth

Oxytocin
Progesterone

38

ADH

Peptide that inhibits urine formation to prevent water imbalance

39

Function of the anterior pituitary

Manufacture and release hormones

40

Origin of anterior pituitary

Rathke's Pouch

41

Origin of posterior pituitary

Diencephalon

42

Connection of anterior pituitary to hypothalamus

Only vascular through hypophyseal portal system

43

Where does the anterior pituitary secrete products

Anterior hypophyseal vein

44

Pituitary adenoma

Benign tumour of epithelial cell origin

45

Hyperplasia

Excess growth

46

6 amino acid based hormones released by the pituitary

ACTH
MSH
GH
TSH
Gonadotropins
Prolactin

47

Tropic hormone

Other endocrine glands are the target

48

Giantism

Growth hormone disorder of childhood

49

Acromelagy

Growth hormone disorder of adulthood

50

ACTH

Stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids to help body fight stressors

51

What is ACTH release stimulated by

Corticotropin releasing hormone from corticotrope cells

52

Cushing's disease

Excess glucosteroids (cortisol) due to increased ACTH
- Causes redistribution of fat-- buffalo hump, moon face

53

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone

Stimulates melanin production for skin pigmentation and appetite control

54

GHRH

Produced in the hypothalamus and stimulates release of GH from somatotropes

55

Somatostatin

Inhibits release of GH and blocks GI and pancreatic cecretions

56

Targets for GH

Epiphyseal plates in bones and skeletal muscle

57

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Produced by thyrotropes and stimulated by TRH
- Stimulates development and secretions of the thyroid

58

Gonadotropins

Secreted by gonadotropes and stimulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone

59

Lutenizing hormone

Type of gonadotropin that onsets ovulation causing release of progesterone

60

Follicle stimulating hormone

Type of gonadotropin that stimulates release of estrogen and gamete production

61

Prolactin

Produced by lactotropes
- Stimulates milk production

62

Order of abundance of anterior pituitary histology

Somatotropes
Corticotropes
Lactotropes
Thyrotropes
Gonadotropes

63

What is the largest pure endocrine gland

Thyroid

64

Where is the thyroid located

Anterior neck
- C5-T1 vertebrae

65

Isthmus

Connects the right and left lobes of thyroid

66

Where is the Isthmus located

Tracheal rings 2-3

67

2 vessels supplying the thyroid

Superior thyroid artery
Inferior thyroid artery

68

Superior thyroid artery

Branch of the external carotid artery

69

Inferior thyroid artery

Branch of the thyrocervical trunk of the subclavian artery

70

3 hormones produced by thyroid

T3
T4
Calcitonin

71

What are T3 and T4 mostly compose dof

Iodine

72

Effects of T3 and T4

Increase metabolic rate and body heat production
Maintain blood pressure
Involved in growth and development

73

Calcitonin

Lowers blood Ca by inhibiting osteoclast activity
-Stimulates Ca uptake in bones

74

Hyperthyroidism (Grave's Disease)

Autoimmune disease caused by overproduction of thyroid hormone

75

Effects of hyperthyroidism

Increased metabolism and sweating
Rapid irregular heart beat, weight loss

76

Exopthalmos

Protrusion of eyeballs caused by hyperthyroidism

77

Treatments for hyperthyroidism

Thyroidectomy
Ingestion of Iodine 131

78

Hypothyroidism

Causes decreased metabolic rate, chills lethargy and edema

79

How is T3 produced

Thyroid stimulating hormone from the pituitary stimulates thyroid to produce T3 with dietary iodine

80

Goiter

Huge thyroid enlargement from prolonged stimulation of TSH in the absence of iodine

81

Thyroid nodules

Tumours of the thyroid gland
- most common endocrine malignancy

82

Parathyroid Glands

4 nodes on posterior thyroid

83

Tetany

Muscular disorder resulting from low Ca

84

What is a cause for tetany

Accidental removal of the parathyroid glands

85

How does PTH act on the kidneys and small intestine

Promoting formation of calcitrol (active vitamin D) which aids in calcium absorption

86

Adrenal gland

Pyramid shape on the superior pole of the kidney

87

What encloses the adrenal gland

Fibrous connective tissue capsule that covers the kidney

88

3 vessels supplying the adrenal gland

Superior suprarenal artery
Middle Suprarenal artery
Inferior suprarenal artery

89

Superior suprarenal artery

Branch of the inferior phrenic artery

90

Middle suprarenal artery

Branch of the abdominal aorta

91

Inferior suprarenal aorta

Renal Artery

92

What composes 85% of the adrenal gland

Adrenal cortex

93

What 2 steroids does the adrenal cortex produce

Mineralcorticoids
Glucocorticoids

94

What are the two lobes of the adrenal gland

Cortex: glandular tissue
Medulla: Neural tissue

95

Mineralcorticoids

(Aldosterone) increase blood levels of salt and walter

96

Glucocorticoids

(cortisol) Stress resistance, immune function and inflammatory response

97

Adrenal medulla

Neural tissue derived from neural crest

98

What are the 2 products released by the adrenal medulla

Epinephrine and norepinephrine (catecholamines)

99

Epinephrine

(80%) Stimulates heart and metabolic activity

100

Norepinephrine

Stimulates vasoconstriction and blood pressure

101

Effects of long term stress response

Retention of sodium and water by kidneys
Increased blood volume and pressure
Increased blood sugar
Suppression of immune system

102

Pancreas

Accessory digestive organ with exocrine and endocrine processes

103

Exocrine cells in the pancreas

Acinar cells: produce enzyme secretions that duct into the small intestine

104

3 endocrine cells in the pancreas

Alpha: glucagon
Beta: Insulin
Delta: somatostatin

105

Which pancreatic cell responds to hypoglycemic conditions

Glucagon

106

Islet of langerhans

Pancreas cells alpha, beta and delta

107

4 parts of the pancreas structure

Head
Neck
Body
Tail

108

Which parts of the pancreas is pouched in the small intestine

Head and neck

109

Which parts of the pancreas are associated with the spleen

Tail

110

4 vessels that supply the pancreas

Celiac trunk
Common hepatic artery
Splenic artery
Superior mesenteric artery

111

Glucagon

Releases glucose to the body

112

Glycogenesis

Breakdown of glycogen to glucose

113

Glucogenesis

Glucose is formed from lactic acid, fats and amino acids

114

What does insulin stimulate

Glucose storage in cells- glucose to glycogen

115

When do alpha cells release glucagon

When blood sugar is low (humoral)

116

When does gestational diabetes take effect

between 24-28 weeks gestation

117

What regulates the gonads

Gonadotropins

118

What two hormones effect the female gonads

Estrogen
Progesterone

119

Where is the pineal gland located

Roof of the 3rd ventricle, part of the dicephalon

120

Pinealocytes

Cells that secrete melatonin

121

What hormone does cardiac muscle produce

Atrial naturetic peptide

122

What does ANP counteract and act with

Counteracts Aldosterone
Acts with ADH

123

What 3 hormones does the placenta secrete

Estrogen
Progesterone
Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG)

124

What hormone does the mucosa of GI organs produce

Gastrin: Stimulates release of HCl for digestion

125

What hormone does adipose tissue produce

Leptin: Acts in CNS to produce feeling of satiety

126

What opposes leptin

Orexin (hypothalamus)