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Anatomy 3300 > Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Deck (254):
1

Duct

Transport, store and mature sperm

2

Glands

Secrete most of semen volume, support but do not produce sperm

3

Spermatic Cord

Derived from anterolateral abdominal wall. Contains blood and nerve supply, accessory ducts

4

Penile raphe

Line down middle of penis, continues into scrotal and perineal raphe

5

Fibromuscular Sac

Smooth muscle layers within layers of scrotum

6

Cremaster

Continuation of internal oblique, surrounds testes. Skeletal muscle elevates testes when it is cold

7

Dartos

Smooth muscle within superficial fascia, contract to wrinkle and trap heat inside

8

Scrotum blood supply

Posterior and anterior scrotal arteries

9

Anterior scrotal artery

Femoral--> External pudenal--> anterior scrotal

10

Posterior scrotal artery

Internal iliac--> internal pudenal--> posterior scrotal

11

Testes

4x 2.5 cm, surrounded by 2 tunic layers

12

Tunica Vaginalis

Extension of parietal peritoneum, visceral and parietal layers with the cavity of tunica vaginalis in between

13

Tunica Albuginea

White fibrous capsule, seperate from peritoneum-- contains lobules

14

Testes Lobules

250-300 lobules, each containing 1-4 seminiferous tubules

15

Order of sperm ducts

Seminiferous tubules
Tubulus rectus
Rete testis
Efferent ductules
Epididymis

16

3 layers of spermatic cord

Internal spermatic fascia
Cremasteric fascia
External spermatic fascia

17

Internal spermatic fascia

From transverse abdominal muscle

18

Cremasteric fascia

From connective tissue coverings of internal oblique

19

External spermatic fascia

From external oblique

20

7 constituents of spermatic cord

Testicular artery
Pampiniform plexus
Ductus deferens
Artery of ductus
Autonomic nerve fibers
Sensory nerve fibers
Lymphatics

21

Pampiniform plexus

Branched vessels make up testicular vein, surround artery for thermoregulation

22

Perineum

Muscular region for external genitalia and anal opening

23

Urogenital triangle

Pubic symphysis and ischial tuberosities

24

Anal triangle

Coccyx and ischial tuberosities

25

Levator ani

Pubococcygeus bound by iliococcygeus. Elevate anus during defecation

26

Male intermediate perineum

External urethral sphincter at urogenital diaphragm
Deep transverse perineal muscle covered by perineal membrane

27

2 perineal muscle

Bulbospongiosus
Ischiocavernosus

28

Bulbospongiosus

Constrict urethral canal and compress bulb of penis to assist with erection

29

Ischiocavernosus

Maintains erection by compressing outflow veins

30

Shaft of penis

Body and glans

31

Body of penis

Free portion without muscles, connective tissue surrounds erectile bodies

32

Glans

Enlarged end of corpus spongiosum forms head of penis

33

Prepuce (male)

Foreskin, corona is at the base of the neck

34

Suspensory ligament of penis

Deep fascia from pubic symphysis forms a sling that attaches at the root

35

Fundiform ligament

Extension from elastic fibers of linea alba

36

2 erectile bodies

Corpora cavernosa (2 top ones)
Corpus spongiosum

37

Collagen fibers

White band that surrounds erectile bodies

38

What encloses the erectile bodies

Tunica albuginea

39

Enhancement phalloplasty

Release suppoting penis ligaments to increase length by 2.5 cm

40

Pericavernosal Graft

Adding tissue to corpora cavernosa to increase width by 30%

41

Allograft

Synthetic material
(autograft is dermal fat)

42

2 parts of root of penis

Bulb: proximal extension of corpus spongiosum
Crura: Proximal seperation of corpus spongiosum

43

Internal pudenal artery

Branch of internal iliac. All the other penis blood vessels branch off this one

44

3 penis blood vessels

Dorsal arteries (either side of vein)
Deep arteries (Within corpora cavernosa, for boner)
Deep Dorsal vein (formed by venous plexus)

45

Epidydmis

Posterior surface of testes, continuous with efferent ductules and ductus deferens

46

How long does the epididymis store sperm

20 days

47

Duct of epididymis

Single, highly coiled duct where immature sperm gain motility

48

Ductus deferens

In spermatic cord, enters pelvic cavity through iguinal canal

49

Path of ductus defrens

Anterior to pubic bone, loops over ureter and descends along posterior bladder wall

50

Ampulla of ductus deferens

Most proximal, terminal portion

51

Ejaculatory Duct

Joining of ampulla and duct of seminal vesicles. Found entirely in prostate and ends at prostatic urethra

52

Urethra

Last duct. Comprised of prostatic, membranous and spongy parts

53

Membranous urethra

Surrounded by external urethral sphincter, with bulbourethral glands on either side

54

Spongy urethra

Within corpus spongiosum, recieves contents of bulbourethral glands

55

Urethral glands

Neutralizing mucous for acidic urine residue

56

Accessory glands

Secretions make up 95% of semen volume. Aid sperm in motility and provide nutrients

57

Seminal vesicles

Pair on posterior bladder wall. Make 60% of semen. Fructose and other sugars support sperm activity

58

Prostate gland

Middle, anterior, posterior and lateral lobes. Secrete prostatic fluid containing PSA

59

Prostate zones

Central zone susceptible to benign prostatic hyperplasia, peripheral zone susceptible to cancer

60

Prostate location

Anterior to rectum. Base associated with neck of bladder, apex at urogenital diaphragm

61

Prostatic fluid

Contains prostate specific antigen. Liquefying agent to aid sperm motility

62

What causes PSA increase

Infection
BPH
Cancer

63

Prostatitis

Inflammation of prostate (UTI). Most common reason for urologist visit

64

BPH incidence

50% at age 60
90% at age 70

65

BPH

Affects glandular tissue, can obstruct bladder neck and urethra

66

Effects of BPH

Cystitis from stagnant urine
Pyelonephritis of renal pelvis
Stone formation

67

Prostate cancer detection

PSA test
Digital rectal exam

68

Bulbourethral glands

Found in urogenital diaphragm, empty contents into spongy urethra. Mucoid substance neutralizes residue and lubricate penis. First to secrete during arousal

69

Where does spermatogenesis occur?

Walls of seminiferous tubules

70

Spermatogenesis steps

Diploid spermatogonia
Splits into another spermatognia + a primary spermatocyte
Meiosis 1: formation of 2 haploid secondary spermatocytes
Meiosis 2: Secondary sper. split again
Product: 4 haploid spermatids

71

Spermiogenesis

Streamline process to mature sperm. Form tail and mitochondria

72

Spermiogenesis steps

Golgi apparatus packages acrosomal enzymes
Position acrosome at head, centrioles at tail
Microtubules at centriole form flagellum
Mitochondria positioned around flagellum
Slough off excess cytoplasm for streamlining
Further maturation

73

Sperm head

Nucleus containing haploid DNA, acrosome

74

Semen

Transport medium, nutrients and chemicals to protect and activate sperm. Alkalinity neutralizes urine

75

Ejaculate volume

2.5 ml---> 50-130 million sperm per mL

76

Structures contributing to semen

Testes 5%
Seminal vesicles 45-80%
Prostate 15-35%
Bulbourethral 2-5%

77

Hypospermia

Less than 1.5 ml of semen. Can happen from frequent ejaculations

78

Hyperspermia

More than 5 ml of semen

79

Fertility

20 million sperm/mL

80

Erection

Parasympthathetic reflex stimulates bulbourethral glands. Corpora cavernosa expands and compresses drainage veins. Corpus spongiosum keeps urethra open

81

NO

Relaxes smooth muscle, arteriole dilation fills erectile bodies

82

GMP

Creates vasodialtion and erection

83

Erection steps

NO
Active guanylate cyclase
cGMP
boner
PDE5 (degrades cGMP)

84

Ejaculation

Sympathetic reflex. Ducts and accessory glands contract to empty contents into urethra. Bulbospongiosus muscle contracts rapidly

85

Internal urethral sphincter in ejaculation

Contracts to prevent expulsion of urine, and prevent reflux of semen into bladder

86

ED incidence

1/10 men

87

Viagara

Inhibits PDE5 so erection is maintained until ejaculation. 70% success rate

88

3 differences between the male and female systems

Gametes formed before birth
Ovulate one ovum at a time
Women have a reproductive period

89

Ovaries

Produce ova, secrete estrogen and progesterone

90

Location of ovaries

Upper pelvic cavity, posterolateral to uterus. Suspended by mesovarium

91

Follicles

Each contain an ovum. Rupture upon maturation to release oocyte

92

3 ovarian attachements

Broad ligament
Ovarian ligament
Suspensory ligament

93

Broad ligament

Part of parietal peritoneum
Mesosalpinx
Mesovarium
Mesometrium

94

Ovarian ligament

Anchored to uterus medially

95

Suspensory ligament (female)

From ovary to pelvic wall. Houses blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics

96

What artery do the testicular and ovarian arteries branch off of?

Abdominal aorta

97

Cortical region of ovary

Gametes and follicles develop here

98

Graafian Follicle

Mature, with antrum, about to be ovulated

99

Medullar region of ovary

Loose connective tissue and vascular supply

100

Uterine tubes

Infundibulum
Ampulla
Isthmus

101

Where does the egg meet the sperm 98% of the time

Ampulla
- Big site for ectopic pregnancies

102

4 uterine tube supports

Broad ligament
Uterosacral ligament: Posterior support
Lateral cervical: Distal uterus, superior vagina
Round ligament: Anterior support to body wall

103

Uterine tube blood supply

Uterine artery: branch off of internal iliac

104

Uterus gross anatomy

Fundus, body, isthmus

105

Internal os

Between uterine cavity an cervix

106

External os

Between cervical canal and vagina

107

Cervical cancer

From epithelial cells in cervix lining. 6th most common disease in women

108

Pap smear

Collection of tissue taken from external os

109

Perimetrium

Outer serous layer of uterus. Visceral peritoneum forms vesicouterine and rectouterine pouches

110

Myometrium

Longitudinal, circular and oblique layers of uterus . Respond to oxytocin and contract during labour

111

Endometrium

Inner mucosal lining of simple columnar epithelium. stratum functionalis and basalis

112

Stratum functionalis

Top layer of endometrium ready to recieve egg. Expands, vascularizes and sloughs off

113

Stratum basalis

Bottom layer of endometrium remains constant

114

Uterine blood vessels

Uterine artery--> Arcuate, radial, straight, spiral

115

Radial artery

Through myometrium towards stratum basalis

116

Straight artery

Supplies stratum basalis

117

Spiral artery

Grow with, and supply stratum functionalis

118

Skene's gland

Female prostate in anterior wall of vagina

119

Lesser Vestibular gland

Anterior vagina around lower urethra

120

Mons pubis

Adipose tissue covers symphysis, provides cushioning during sex

121

Labia majora

Fold inferior to mons pubis. Homologous to scrotum development

122

Labia minora

Fold that encloses vestibule

123

Prepuce (female)

Two labia folds form a hood that covers clitoris

124

Clitoris

Projection of erectile tissue, equivalent of 2 corpus cavernosa bodies in males

125

Clitoris anatomy

Crus, angle, body, glans

126

Vaginal vestibule

Opening of vagina and urethra, enclosed by labia minor.

127

Vestibular glands

Lubricate orifice, first to secrete during arousal (equivalent of bulbourethral)

128

Deep perineum (female)

Urethra, vagina, rectum, levator ani muscles

129

Intermediate female perineum

External urethral sphincter, deep transverse perineal muscle, bulb: Erectile tissue surrounded by labia majora

130

Superficial female perineum

Urethra, vaginal orifice, ischiocavernosus (over crus), bulbospongiosus, superficial transverse perineal muscle

131

Mammary glands

Modified sebaceous sweat glands on ribs 2-6. Cover pectoralis major and serratus anterior

132

Axillary process

Small wing on breast heading to armpit

133

Sebum

Small dimples with glands below produce it. Like ear wax. Prevent dryness while nursing

134

Functional units of mammary glands

Secretory alveoli and ducts , stimulated to develop by prolactin produced in anterior pituitary

135

Mammary lobes

15-25 lobes seperated by adipose tissue, alveoli inside produce milk

136

Milk path

Lobe
Lobule
Alveoli
Lactiferous ducts
Lactiferous sinus
Nipple

137

Mammary gland blood supply

Subclavian artery. Branches into internal and lateral thoracic arteries

138

Breast cancer incidence

1/8 women. 2nd leading cause of cancer detah

139

Ductal Carcinoma

From epithelial cells of lactiferous duct (90%)

140

Breast cancer detection

Self exam, mammography, ultrasound

141

How are breast masses identified by location

Upper/lower, inner/outer quadrants

142

Lymphatic drainage

Circulatory system drains extracellular fluid from accumulation site

143

Most common lymphatic draining sites

Axiallary and parasternal nodes

144

Where do the nodes drain

Right and thoracic lymphatic duct

145

Oogonium

Diploid stem cells divide into primary oocytes during fetal development. Remain diploid until end of meiosis 1

146

Oogenesis

Occurs during fetal period. Oogonium produces a haploid gamete

147

Egg Meiosis 1

Oogonia divide into 2 million primary oocytes

148

Eggs during childhood

Only 400,000 left as oocytes degenerate and remain inactive in ovary cortex until puberty

149

How many eggs are activated during menstruation

8-10

150

Polar bodies

In females, all resources go to one gamete, the rest become polar bodies and the DNA degenerates

151

Egg Meiosis 2

Primary oocyte splits into secondary oocyte + First polar body. SO and PB are ovulated. Meiosis 2 done when egg meets sperm

152

Fertilization

Secondary oocyte becomes an ovum + Second polar body. Meiosis 2 resumes

153

Zygote

Diploid cell formed from joining of ovum and nuclei of sperm

154

Ovarian cycle

Monthly events to mature an oocyte. Follicular and luteal phases

155

Follicular phase

FSH triggers follicle growth during days 1-14, and ovulation

156

FSH

Stimulated by hypothalamus, produced by anterior pituitary

157

Hormone produced in follicular phase

All cells produce estrogen, stimulates uterus

158

LH surge

Increase in lutenizing hormone once follicle matures (day 14). Triggers ovulation

159

Luteal phase time

Days 14-28

160

Corpus luteum

Graafian follicle remains in ovary after ovulation and becomes an endocrine organ. Produces progesterone and estrogen which forms a thick mucous plug

161

3 phases of uterine cycle

Menstrual
Proliferative
Secretory

162

Menstrual phase

(Day 1-5) Stratum functionalis detaches from uterine wall resulting in bleeding

163

Proliferative phase

Days 15-28: Estrogen from follicles stimulates basalis to seperate from functionalis

164

What does proliferative stage stimulate

Development of spiral ateries, endometrial veins and uterine glands

165

What hormone thins cervix mucous

Estrogen-- so sperm can penetrate uterus

166

Secretory phase

Days 15-28: Corpus luteum produces progesterone. Spiral arteries develop and mucous thickens

167

When does corpus luteum degenerate

If fertilization does not occur. Progesterone decreases and spiral arteries die

168

Corpus Albicans

Scars on ovary surface from corpus luteum

169

Which phase matches luteal phase

Secretory

170

Pill

Mimics luteal/secretory phases by generating a constant level of progesterone and estrogen

171

What does the pill inhibit

Ovulation by suppressing FSH and LH

172

Sugar pill

Reduce progesterone to allow natural menstruation

173

Perimenopause

Reduced estrogen production because less eggs are available. Disrupted progesterone causes irregular ovulation and menstruation

174

Postmenopause

Little estrogen, no progesterone, no uterus lining

175

Order of development phases

Conceptus, pre embryo, embryo (3 weeks) , fetus (9 weeks)

176

Gestation period

From beginning of ovulation to birth. 14 days longer than pregnancy

177

How long is ovum viable after ovulation

12-24 hours. Sperm is viable up to 72

178

Capacitation

Final sperm maturation step. Increase motility of flagella, weaken acrosomal membranes

179

Acrosomal reaction

Sperm penetrate corona radiata at zona pellucida of egg. Its a glycoprotein so you need mulitple sperm to bust through

180

3 acrosomal enzymes

Hyaluronidase
Acrosin
Proteases

181

Infertility incidence

10-15% of population. 3% require intervention

182

Intrauterine insemination

First ART, for sterile male. Donated sperm deposited into vagina or cervix

183

IVF

Women induced to supraovulate, ova and sperm are collected and grown to 8-16 cell stage. Embryo transferred to uterus

184

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

Sperm injected into egg, IVF

185

TESA

Testicular epididymal sperm aspiration. Sperm collected where they are more developed. Done for low sperm count or poor sperm health

186

Blastomere

Each cell in conceptus. Mitotic events create cleavage, splits into many smaller cells

187

Blastomere development stages

Blastomere
4 cell stage (2 days)
Morula (3 days, 32 more cells)
Blastocyst (4-6 days)

188

Blastocyst

Implants in uterine wall. Made of trophoblast and inner cell mass

189

Trophoblast

Single layer, forms placenta

190

Inner cell mass

Embroblast-- Creates embryonic disc and embryo

191

Blastocele

Fluid filled cavity in blastocyst

192

When does implantation occur

7 days after ovulation

193

Window of implantation

Blastocyst floats in uterine cavity for 2-3 days, appropriate progesterone and estrogen levels prepare uterus

194

Uterine glands

Make a glycoprotein coat, blastocyst looks for right thickness

195

Implantation

Trophoblast attaches to endometrium, secretes enzymes and growth factors

196

Human chorionic gonadotropin

Secreted by trophoblast cells, maintains corpus luteum. First chemical signal sent by conceptus

197

When is there a spike of HCG

after ovulation

198

Early gastrula

First half of week 3, support membranes develop. Inner cell mass divides into epiblast and hypoblast

199

Amnion

Transparent, fluid filled sac from epiblast cells. Encapsulates embryo and provides supportive environment

200

Yolk Sac

From hypoblast, forms gut, blood vessels and primordial germ cells

201

Allantois

Outpocket from caudal end of yolk sac forms umbilical cord

202

Chorion

Outermost layer forms fetal portion of placenta

203

Decidua basalis

Moms portion of placenta

204

Decidua capsularis

Epithelium covering conceptus, not a part of placenta

205

Umbilical cord

Core of embryonic connective tissue, forms umbilical arteries and umbilical vein

206

Late gastrulation

2 layered disc becomes 3 layered embryo-- ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm. Cellular migration and rearrangement

207

Primitive streak

Groove on dorsal epiblast grows in direction of tail. Forms a longitudinal axis

208

Endoderm

Epiblast cells divide quickly and migrate to primitive streak. Replace hypoblast

209

Mesoderm

Epiblast cells wedge between endoderm and epiblast

210

Ectoderm

Cells remaining on dorsal surface when epiblast stops dividing

211

Ectoderm derivatives (4)

NS
Epidermis (skin, hair, nails, sweat glands
Cornea and lens
Epithelium of oral, nasal and anal cavities

212

Mesoderm derivatives

Muscle, cartilage, bone, connective tissue, blood, bone marrow, blood vessels, urogenital system

213

Endoderm

Epithelium of digestive and respiratory tracts, reproductive organs, liver and pancreas

214

Notochord

Beginning of nervous system formation from mesoderm. Stimulates ectoderm above to specialize

215

Ectoderm organogenesis

Neural plate with neural crest cells on either side. Edges of plate lift up to form neural groove and neural folds. Form neural tube

216

Mesoderm organogenesis

Notochord replaced by vertebral column. 40 pairs of somites present by week 4

217

3 Somites

Paired mesodermal blocks form vertebrae. Sclerotome, dermatome, myotome

218

Sclerotome

Closest to neural tube, migrate medially to form ribs and vertebrae

219

Dermatome

Form dermis of skin and dorsal body

220

Myotome

Form skeletal muscle and limb buds

221

Intermediate mesoderm

Form kidneys and gonads

222

2 parts of lateral mesoderm

Somatic mesoderm
Sphlanic mesoderm

223

Somatic mesoderm

Body-- forms dermis of ventral body, parietal serosa and bone and ligaments of limbs

224

Sphlanic mesoderm

Organs-- forms heart, blood vessels, connective tissue, smooth muscle and serosa of organs

225

Coelum

Singular cavity gets walled into different compartments during development

226

End of embryonic period

Bones ossify, muscles are contracting. Kidneys are developing and gonads have formed. Heart and liver bulge on ventral surface

227

When is the placenta complete and functional

Month 3

228

Baby side of placenta

Originates from trophoblast, becomes chorion

229

Mom side of placenta

Originates from stratum functionalis, becomes decidua basalis

230

Umbilical arteries

Two twisted up with umbilical vein. DEOXYGENATED

231

Umbilical vein

Carries oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus

232

Placenta previa

Forms adjacent or across internal os. Complicates expansion of uterus. Cant deliver by normal birth

233

Placenta previa incidence

0.5-0.8% most common placenta problm

234

Placenta abruptio

Premature seperation of placenta from uterine wall caused by bleeding into decidua basalis

235

Abruptio incidence

1% of pregnancies

236

Mild abruptio

10-20% minimal bleeding and normal FHR, careful monitoring

237

Moderate abruptio

20-50% loss of 1L of blood leads to fetal distress

238

Severe abruptio

Loss of more than 1.5L of blood leads to abnormal FHR and possible death

239

Age of viability

23 weeks

240

Fetal period

9-38 weeks

241

Amniocentesis

Obtain amniotic fluid containing fetal cells. Performed after 14 weeks gestation. Chemical analysis, kareotyping

242

AFP

Alpha feteoprotein-- Abnormal levels found in amniotic fluid if there is a neural tube defect

243

How long does amniocentesis take

17 weeks-- build enough fluid, collct sample, grow cell culture for 3 weeks then test

244

Chorionic villi sampling

Removal of small portion of placenta transcervically or trans abdominally

245

When is CVS done

10-12 weeks, results within days. Faster than amniocentesis but increased risk of spontaneous abortion

246

Labour stimulated by

Oxytocin from posterior pituitary
Prostaglandins produced by uterus

247

Dilation stage

Cervix dilates to 10cm and amniotic sac ruptures

248

Lactation preparation

Rising levels of estrogen and progesterone prepare breast

249

Lactation

Hypothalamus releases prolactin releasing hormone. Anterior pituitary releases prolactin to mature breast tissues
Milk production in 2-3 days

250

Colostrum

Initial fluid high in protein and antibodies

251

Let down reflex

Stimulated by suckling
Hypothalamus stimulates posterior pituitary to release oxytocin
Milk ejected from alveoli

252

Ductus venosus

Additional vessel from umbilical cord empties into inferior vena cava to bypass hepatic portal system

253

Foramen ovale

Hole in wall between right and left atria to by pass right ventricle. Bypass pulmonary system

254

Ductus arteriosus

From right ventricle to pulmonary trunk to aorta. Bypass pulmonary system