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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (183):
1

2 kinds of nervous system cells

Neurons
Neuroglia

2

# of cranial nerves

12

3

# of spinal nerves

31

4

2 divisions of the nervous system

Central
Peripheral

5

Nuclei

Collection of neurons performing the same task in the CNS

6

Nerve

Bundle of thousands of axons with associated connective tissue and blood vessels in PNS

7

Ganglia

Masses of nervous tissue found in PNS

8

Interneuron

Interconnect with other neurons and are very short

9

Somatic nervous system

part of PNS containing sensory neurons

10

Somatic motor neurons

Convey info from CNS to skeletal muscles only

11

2 divisions of the motor ANS

Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

12

What cells myelinate axons in the CNS

Oligodendrocytes

13

What cells myelinate axons in the PNS

Schwann cells

14

Efferent

Nerve impulses away from CNS

15

Afferent

Nerve impulses towards CNS

16

Dendrites

Primary target for synaptic input from other neurons . Opposite end from axon terminal

17

Hillock

Point of departure of axon

18

Anterograde Transport

From cell body to axon terminal

19

2 types of Nerve fibers

Dendrites
Axons

20

1

Olfactory
O: olfactory epithelium

21

2

Optic
O: retina

22

3

Oculomotor

23

4

Trochlear

24

5

Trigeminal

25

6

Abducens

26

7

Facial

27

8

Vestibulochlear

28

9

Glossopharyngeal

29

10

Vagus

30

11

Spinal Accessory

31

12

Hypoglossal

32

Pneumonic for cranial nerve names

Oh oh oh to touch and feel very green vegetables ah!

33

Pneumonic for cranial nerve functions (sensory, motor, both)

Some say marry money but my brother says big breasts matter more

34

What space are neurotransmitters released into

synaptic cleft

35

Glia

Provide insulation, maintain chemical environment and contribute to the blood brain barrier

36

Glia: Neuron ratio

3:1

37

Blood brain barrier

Glia surround blood vessels in the brain and prevent toxins from entering the blood stream

38

Astrocytes

Glia that mop up neurotransmitters and maintain homesostasis

39

Microglia

Respond to injury in the CNS and produce inflammatory mediators

40

2 types of myelinating glia

Oligodendrocytes
Schwann cells

41

Oligodendrocyte

Part of the CNS-- Nodes of ranvier are fewer and more widely spaced allowing for faster transmission
-- COIL AROUND SEVERAL AXONS

42

Schwann cells

Part of the PNS
Associated with only one nerve
Nodes of ranvier are closer together

43

Number of each type of vertebrae

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal

44

How many spinal cord segments per 1 pair of spinal nerves

31

45

What is the beginning of the PNS

Nerves

46

Enlargements

Bulges in spinal cord corresponding with attachment of large nerves

47

Where are the 2 spinal cord enlargments

Cervical-- C4-T1
Lumbar-sacral-- L1-S2

48

Conus Medullaris

Tapering end of the spinal cord between L1 and L2 vertebrae

49

Filum Terminale

Continuation of pia mater. Section is left with no nervous tissue and attaches to coccyx and anchors spinal cord

50

Caude Equina

(Horse Tail) bundle of spinal nerves and spinal nerve roots, consisting of the second through fifth lumbar nerve pairs, the first through fifth sacral nerve pairs, and the coccygeal nerve

51

Where should you perform a lumbar puncture

Caude equina-- devoid of spinal cord so you can obtain CSF safely

52

What vertebral section does the spinal cord end at

L1/L2

53

3 layers of spinal cord coverings

Pia mater
Arachoid mater
Dura mater

54

Pia mater

Innermost layer that attaches to the spinal cord surface and brain -- many blood vessels

55

Denticulate ligaments

Paired ligaments in pia mater, on either side of the cord, that attach it to the arcachnoid and dura mater

56

Arachoid Mater

Avascular, middle layer

57

Dura Mater

(tough mother) Outermost layer extends from foramen magnum to S2 vertebrae

58

Potential spaces

Space we can use in healthcare

59

2 spinal cord spaces

Subaracnoid space
Sub dural space

60

What are spinal cord spaces fllled with

CSF

61

Epidural layer

Outside of dura mater

62

2 Epidural effects

Analgesia (decrease pain)
Anesthesia (decrease sensation)

63

Which spinal cord sulcus is more pronounced

Anterior median

64

First section in spinal nerve

Root

65

Spinal nerve

Rootlet-- Root-- Spinal nerve
Part of the PNS and connects to CNS receptors

66

Dorsal root ganglion

PNS structure unique to posterior root-- First neuron in sensory pathway

67

White matter

Myelinated axons and tracts send sensory impulses from receptors to brain and motor impulses from brain to effectors

68

Grey matter

Neuron populations in a butterfly shape recieve and integrate incoming and outgoing information

69

3 horns of the grey matter in spinal cord

Dorsal
Lateral
Anterior

70

Dorsal horn

Receives sensory input

71

Anterior horn

Transmits motor output

72

Lateral horn

Autonomic NS

73

Un-myelinated axons

Small and slow

74

Cervical spinal cord section

Flattened dorso-ventrally
Biggest section
Alot of white matter with large ventral grey horns

75

Thoracic spinal cord section

Small diameter with small grey matter
- not many muscles here

76

Lumbar section

Nearly circular
Large ventral and dorsal grey horns
Less white matter

77

Sacral sponal cord section

Small with alot of grey matter

78

Posterior root function

Sensory

79

Anterior root function

Motor

80

3 layers of the peripheral nerve

Epineurium
Perineurium
Endoneurium

81

Epineurium

Layer around the entire peripheral nerve with bundles inside
- vascular supply for nerve

82

Perineurium

Surrounds every peripheral nerve bundle

83

Endoneurium

Innermost layer of peripheral nerve surrounds axon

84

Where do axons degenerate following injury

Distal to lesion

85

Degeneration

Debris is picked up by immune system following injury and myelin is broken up

86

PNS regeneration

Vigorous and complete

87

CNS regeneration

Uncommon and never complete

88

Axotomy

Severing the axon

89

Wallerian degenration

Axon separates from cell body and degenerates distal to the injury

90

Where does myelination begin in regeneration

Proximal end

91

Characteristics of regenerated nerve

More schwann cells and nodes of ranvier = slower

92

Do cut or crush injuries heal better?

Crush-- preserved endoneurium supports better recovery

93

Necrosis

neuronal death

94

Glial scar

form in response to CNS injury

95

3 parts of the brain stem

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata

96

Medulla oblongata

Part of brain stem connected to the spinal cord

97

4 components of the CNS

Spinal cord
Brainstem
Cerebellum
Forebrain

98

2 parts of the forebrain

Diencephalon
Cerebral hemispheres

99

Gyrus

Hill

100

Sulcus

Valley-- groovy surface allows for more neurons and more intelligence

101

3 layers in brain covering

Pia mater
Aracnoid mater
Dura mater

102

What produces CSF

Choroid plexus

103

Where are choroid plexuses located

In very brain ventricle

104

CSF

Optimum environment for chemical signalling, exchnaging nutrients and shock absorption

105

4 brain ventricles

2 lateral
Third
Fourth

106

Interventricular formamen

Connects the lateral brain ventricles to the third ventricle

107

Cerebral aqeduct

Connects the third and fourth brain ventricles

108

Movement of CSF through brain

Choroid plexus
Lateral ventricle
Interventricular foramen
Third ventricle
Cerebral aqueduct
Fourth ventricle
Central canal and subarachnoid spaces
Superior saggital sinus

109

Medulla

Connects spinal cord to diencephalon
- Transmits everything to spinal cord

110

Anterior medulla

Motor

111

Posterior medulla

Sensory

112

Decussation of pyramids

Crossing of motor tracts in the anterior aspect of medulla oblongata -- why brain contorls opposite side of body

113

Sensory Fasciculi

Ascending sensory axons that go to medial lemniscus

114

Pons

Ventral to cerebellum
Connects cerebral cortex and spinal cord to cerebellum

115

What does the pons consist of

Nuclei and tracts

116

Substantia Nigra

Large, darkly pigmented nuclei in the midbrain that produces dopamine

117

Substantia nigra in parkinsons

Dead and unpigmented

118

Cerebral peduncles

Pair of tracts containing motor neurons in the midbrain

119

Cerebellum

Second largest part of brian with 2 folded hemispheres connected via brainstem

120

Function of cerebellum

Coordination of complex sequences of movements and regulation of posture and balance

121

Ataxia

Failure to regulate posture and movement causes uncoordinated movements and speech

122

Diencephalon

Thalamus and hypothalamus
Involved in sensory and motor processing

123

Thalamus

Relay station to cerebral cortex where all sensory input enters-- carries motor input from cerebellum

124

Hypothalamus

Regulator of homeostasis, inferior to thalamus

125

Sensory areas in Cerebrum

Primary visual cortex
Postcentral gyrus

126

Primary visual cortex

Occipital lobe

127

Postcentral gyrus

Pariteal lobe

128

Motor areas of the cerebrum

Pre-central gyrus and Broca's speech area

129

2 blood vessels supplying brain

Vertebral artery and internal carotid artery

130

Circle of willis

circulatory anastomosis that supplies blood to the brain and surrounding structures

131

6 Vessels in circle of willis

Anterior cerebral artery (2)
Anterior communicating artery
Internal carotid artery (2)
Posterior cerebral artery (2)
Posterior communicating artery (2)

132

Which vessels are not included in circle of willis?

Middle cerebral arteries

133

Posterior communicating artery

Connects internal carotid and cerebral arteries

134

Which nerve is part of the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone

Olfactory

135

Olfactory bulbs

masses of gray matter

136

Optic chiasma

Axons from medial half of each eye cross

137

Optic tract

posterior to optic nerve

138

Which 3 nerves control muscles that move the eyeballs

Occulomotor
Trochlear
Abducens

139

Occulomotor

Innervates superior rectus, levator palpebrae superioris and all extrinsic eye muscles

140

Trochlear

Smallest cranial nerve and only one that comes from posterior brain stem
- innervates superior oblique

141

Abducens

Originates in the pons and innervates lateral rectus

142

Trigeminal

Largest cranial nerve, has 3 branches
-- Opthalmic, maxillary and mandibular

143

Opthalmic branch

Smallest trigeminal branch, goes through superior orbital fissure

144

Maxillary branch

Intermediate size, passes through foramen rotundum

145

Mandibular branch

Motor neurons for mastication, passes through foramen ovale

146

Facial nerve

Sensory axons for anterior 2/3 of taste buds

147

Propiorception

Ability to know your own body and feel position without looking

148

Vestibulocochlear

Inner ear structures required for equilibrium

149

4 inner ear structures

Semicircular canals
Saccule
Utricle
Cochlea

150

Glossopharyngeal

Posterior 1/3 of tatse buds
- sensory to oropharynx

151

Motor component of glossopharyngeal nerve

Tympanic membrane (ear drum)

152

Vagus

Longest nerve- travels to gut
- Motor function for pharynx, larynx and soft palate for speaking and swallowing

153

Spinal Accessory

Brachial motor nerve divided into cranial and spinal accessory
- Innervates sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

154

Hypoglossal nerve

Motor cranial nerve for tongue muscles
- comes from medulla

155

2 Motor neurons in ANS

Preganglionic
Postganglionic

156

Preganglionic neuron

Has cell body in CNS

157

Autonomic ganglion

Neuronal body outside CNS
- preganglionic axon extends to it

158

Postganglionic neuron

Cell body within the autonomic ganglion
- unmyelinated axon goes to effector

159

What neurotransmitter do ANS motor neurons release that somatic motor neurons can't?

Norepinephrine

160

Dual innervation

Recieve impulses from both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches

161

Sympathetic NS

Output to smooth muscle of blood vessels
- Increase alertness and metabolic activity

162

What grey hron do sympathetic fibers originate from

Lateral horn (T1-L2)

163

Sympathetic trunk ganglia

Lie in a vertical row on wither side of the vertebral column from the skull to the coccyx

164

Are pre or post ganglionic axons longer in the SNS?

Post

165

Where do parasympathetic NS fibers originate from

Cranial nerves 3,7,9,10
S2-4 of spinal cord

166

Are pre or post ganglionic axons longer in the PNS?

Pre

167

Pneumonic for actions of the PNS

Salivation
Lacrimation
Urination
Digestion
Defecation

168

5 organs recieving only sympathetic innervation

Sweat glands
Arrector muscles in hair
Kidney
Adrenal medulla
Blood vessels

169

Order of motor pathway

Cerebral cortex
Pyramids
Decussation of pyramids
Ventral horn of spinal cord
Muscle

170

Order of sensory pathway

Dorsal horn of spinal cord
Dorsal fasciculi
Cerebral penduncles
Thalamus
Cerebral cortex

171

Whats on the anterior and posterior medulla

Anterior: Pyramids
Posterior: Sensory fasciculi

172

2 things on the midbrain

Cerebral peduncles
Substantia nigra

173

Used CSF gets transported through what structure to get into the superior saggital sinus from the subarchnoid space

Arachnoid villi

174

Primary Visual Area

Recieves visual information and is involved in visual perception

175

Broca's Speech Area

Planning and production of speech
- opposite end of occipital lobe

176

Central sulcus

Divides the primary somatosensory and motor areas

177

Primary motor area

Controls voluntary contraction of specific muscles

178

Primary auditory area

At the base of motor and sensory areas
- closer to occipital lobe than broca's

179

Falx cerebri

Extension of dura mater into cerebral hemispheres
- acts as an anchor

180

Circle of Willis order on diagram from top to bottom

Anterior Cerebral, Anterior communicating
Middle cerebral, Internal carotid
Posterior cerebral, posterior communicating
Vertebral

181

Anterior cerebral artery territory

Frontal lobe

182

Middle cerebral artery territory

Parietal lobe

183

Posterior cerebral artery territory

Occipital lobe