Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy 3300 > Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (78):
1

4 kidney functions

Filter blood
Remove waste and toxins though urine
Control blood composition
Produce hormones and chemicals

2

How much fluid does the kidney filter /day

200L

3

How much urine is produced/day

1.5 L

4

What 3 components of blood are controlled by kidneys

Water
Electrolytes
pH

5

2 products secreted by kidneys

Renin-- blood pressure
EPO-- red blood cells

6

What vertebrae do the kidneys span?

T12- L3

7

Hilum

Medial margin of kidney-- Entrance and exit for renal artery and vein

8

Which is more left, IVC or AA?

Abdominal aorta

9

What branches off of the IVC and AA

IVC-- right and left renal veins
AA- Right and left renal arteries

10

Which renal artery is longer

Right

11

Which kidney is lower?

Right-- pressed down by liver

12

3 structures next to right kidney

Liver
Ascending colon
Duodenum

13

5 structures next to left kidney

Pancreas
Spleen
Stomach
Descending colon
Jejunum

14

4 layers of kidney support

Parietal peritoneum
Renal fascia
Adipose capsule
Renal capsule

15

Renal capsule

Innermost layer, protects kidney

16

Adipose capsule

Protective fatty cushion below renal fascia

17

Renal fascia

Tough fibrous connective tissue anchors kidneys and adrenal glands-- protects peritoneum from infection

18

2 things in the medulla of the kidney

Pyramids
Columns

19

Lobe

Renal pyramid and overlying cortex
- Produces urine

20

Flow of urine through renal sinus

Minor Calyx
Major calyx
Renal Pelvis
Ureter

21

6 big kidney blood supply vessels

Renal
Segmental
Lobar
Interlobar
Arcuate
Interlobular

22

4 blood vessels in nephron

Afferent glomerular
Glomerulus
Efferent glomerular
Peritubular Capillaries

23

3 causes of kidney stones

Animal protein
High Na
Supplementary calcium

24

What size of stone will block ureter

Greater than 3mm

25

Prevalence of kidney stones

8-10%
-- half the risk for women (estrogen as a protective factor)

26

Treatment for 70% of kidney stones

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

27

Hydronephrosis

Ureter blockage leads to urine back flow into kidney
-- water in kidney

28

3 causes of hydronephrosis

Kidney stones
Tumour
Pregnancy related compression

29

When do people need a kidney transplant

Less than 15% urinary function

30

Kidney Transplant

Third kidney inserted into pelvis. Renal artery of the kidney is connected the external iliac artery o f the recipient. The renal vein is attached to the external iliac vein. Ureter is attached to surface of the bladder

31

Nephron

Functional unit of kidney, absorbs ass much water as possible

32

Where does the urine produced by nephrons drain to

Thousands of collecting ducts collect urine and drain into minor calyx

33

Glomerulus

Cluster of blood vessels surrounded by the Bowman's capsule

34

Bowmans capsule

Cup shaped membranous structure that extracts waste and excess ions

35

Proximal convoluted tubule

First wiggly part of nephron circulation before loop of henle

36

Distal convoluted tubule

Follows the ascending limb of loop of henle, ends in collecting duct

37

Arcuate artery

Runs between medulla and cortex of kidney

38

Cortical Nephrons

85% of nephrons-- almost entirely in cortex

39

Peritubular Capillaries

Tiny branches off efferent arterioles for reabsorption, Surround PCT and DCT

40

Vasa recta

Peritubular capillaries covering the loop of henle

41

Juxtamedullary nephrons

Have a longer loop of henle that goes deeper into medulla. At the cortex-medulla interface, descending limb is more extensive

42

Renal tubule

Bowmans capsule, PCT, loop of henle, DCT

43

Renal corpuscle

Vascular connection between glomerulus and bowmans capsule

44

Renal tubule + corpuscle =

Nephron

45

Where do ureters start and how long are they

Begins at L2-- 25-30cm long

46

Are ureters retroperitoneal?

Yes

47

Where do ureters enter the pelvis

Bifurcation of common iliac artery (into external and internal ), crosses the IVC and AA to enter into posterior bladder wall

48

3 sites where ureter makes a sharp turn

Ureter/renal pelvis-- 90 degrees out of kidney
Cross iliac artery
90 degree turn to enter bladder

49

Bladder location

Posterior to pubic symphysis

50

Bladder capacity

700-800mL
-- 400-600mL is stimulus for urination

51

Trigone

Smooth area without rugae in bladder, triangle between urethral and ureter openings

52

What would happen if there was no trigone

Stretching would close off the urethra

53

Where does the urethra exit the bladder

Neck

54

Internal urethral sphincter

At neck- controlled autonomically with detrusor muscles

55

External urethral sphincter

Floor of the pelvis-- skeletal muscle

56

Potential space found in males and females

Retropubic: Between pubic symphysis and bladder. Filled with fat

57

Retrovesical Pouch

Found in males behind bladder. Can be compromised by disease

58

Location of uterus

Between bladder and rectum

59

Rectouterine pouch

Between rectum and uterus

60

Vesiocouterine pouch

Between uterus and bladder

61

Blood supply to bladder

Internal iliac artery branches into superior and inferior vesical arteries-- superior to bladder

62

Urethral glands

Secrete a mucous lining to protect urethra from urine

63

Female urethra

4cm long straight tube from neck of bladder to vestibule
- Orifice and sphincters are all adjacent to each other

64

Male urethra

20 cm long, for urine and semen

65

Prostatic part of urethra

Most proximal-- internal sphincter to prostate gland, includes prostate and ejaculatory ducts

66

Membranous part of urethra

Shortest segment passes through floor of pelvis. Contains external sphincter

67

Spongy part of urethra

Longest section goes through penis
Contains ejaculatory duct and orifice

68

Corpus Spongosium

Spongy tissue in penis

69

Bulbourethal Duct

Contributes to ejaculate

70

Micturition

Urination

71

Causes of UTI

Ecoli, sex

72

UTI sex ratio

5:1 for women-- shorter urethras and are closer to internal organs

73

Age prevalences for UTI

Male-- risk increases with age as prostate enlarges
Female-- Highest risk at 20-30 when they are most sexually active

74

Urethritis

Dysuria
Frequency and urgency increase
Primarily effects women

75

Cystits

UTI ascends to bladder
Pyuria and bacteriuria make pee cloudy and smelly

76

Acute Pyelonephritis

UTI ascends to kidneys
Inflammation of calyces and pelvis

77

Erythropoietin

Stimulates RBC formation in bone marrow to increase oxygen carrying capacity

78

What 3 hypoxic conditions trigger EPO production

Reduced number of RBC-- blood donation
Reduced availability of oxygen-- altitude
Increased tissue demand for oxygen--exercise