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Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (136):
1

3 functions of the RS

Ventilation
Gas Exchange
Oxygen utilization

2

Conducting RS

Gets air to the lungs
- Nasal cavities and terminal bronchioles

3

Respiratory RS

Allows functional gas exchange
- Respiratory bronchioles and alveoli

4

2 structures of the upper RS

Nose
Pharynx

5

4 structures of the lower RS

Larynx
Trachea
Bronchioles
Lungs

6

Nose

Only external part of RS
- Moistens, warms and filters the air

7

Dorsum nasi

Cartilaginous, soft part of nose

8

Beginning and end of nasal cavity

Nostril
Choana

9

Choana

Opening at the back of the throat

10

2 vessels supplying nasal cavity

Anterior ethmoid
Posterior ethmoid

11

Vibrissae

Trap large particles in nasal cavity

12

2 mucous linings in nasal cavity

Olfactory
Respiratory

13

Olfactory mucosa

Covers cribiform plate of ethmoid

14

Respiratory mucosa

Trap small particles in nasal cavity

15

Chonchae

Bony protrusions in nasal cavity-- hills

16

Meatus

Valleys in the nasal cavity to increase surface area. Covered in epithelium and highly vascular. Moistens air

17

Anterior epistaxis

Less bony protection on anterior side of nasal cavity causes more nose bleeds than in the posterior

18

Glottis

Location of vocal cords. Separates upper and lower RS

19

How many branches do bronchi have?

23

20

How many lobes do the lungs have?

Right-- 3
Left-- 2

21

3 functions of paranasal sinuses

Warm air
Sound resonance
Decrease skull weight

22

4 paranasal sinuses

Frontal
Maxillary
Sphenoidal
Ethmoidal

23

Pharynx

Common tube for digestive and respiratory systems-- Air is shuttled posteriorly with food, then buds off anteriorly with larynx

24

3 functions of the pharynx

Conduct air to larynx
Conduct foor to esophagus
Help resonate vocalizations

25

Pharynx structure

Skeletal muscle
Mucous membrane lining
Tonsils

26

Nasopharynx

Posterior to nasal cavity above soft palate. Passage for air

27

Uvula

Hangs from palate in oropharynx-- moves superiorly along with soft palate to close off opening to nasopharynx during swallowing

28

Superior, inferior and anterior limits of nasopharynx

Superior: base of skull
Inferior: Soft palate
Anterior limit: Nasal conchae

29

Pharyngotympanic tube

Auditory tube connects nasopharynx to middle ear and equalizes pressure-- ears popping is tube opening to release pressure

30

4 components of nasopharynx

Choana
Pharyngeal tonsil
Uvula
Auditory tube

31

Oropharynx

Posterior to oral cavity. Passage for food and air

32

Fauces

Arched opening at the back of the mouth, leading to oropharynx

33

Superior, Inferior and anterior limits of the oropharynx

Superior: Soft palate
Inferior: Base of epiglottis
Anterior: Palatoglossal arch

34

Epiglottis

Elastic cartilage covered with a mucous membrane, attached to entrance of larynx

35

4 components of the oropharynx

Palatine tonsils
Fauces
Lingual tonsils
Posterior 1/3 of tongue

36

Laryngopharynx

Posterior to larynx. Passage for food and air

37

Laryngeal inlet

Entrance from pharynx to larynx

38

Superior, inferior and anterior limits of laryngopharynx

Superior: base of epiglottis
Inferior: Cricoid cartilage, continues as esophagus
Anterior: Laryngeal inlet

39

Laryngeal inlet

Closes larynx during swallowing

40

Tonsils

4 groups of lymphoid tissue that prevent infection

41

Pharyngeal tonsil

Only one. Adenoids become enlarged and blocks air passage. In nasopharynx

42

Tubal tonsils

Surround pharyngotympanic tube. If blocked, pressure in tube can't be equalized and ears feel blocked. Nasopharynx

43

Palatine Tonsils

Back of oral cavity

44

Lingual Tonsils

On tongue in oropharynx

45

URTI

Upper respiratory tract infection-- flue and throat infections

46

Chest infection

Bronchitis, pneumonia

47

Chronic chest infections

Emphysema, Asthma

48

Larynx

5 cm long passage way between pharynx and trachea

49

Where is the larync

C4-6

50

Superior and inferior limits of the larynx

Superior: Base of epiglottis and hyoid bone
Inferior: Cricoid cartilage is continuous with trachea

51

3 functions of the larynx

Passage of air
Prevent passage of food
Produce vocalizations

52

Laryngeal arteries

Branches of superior and inferior thyroid artery-- superior and inferior laryngeal arteries

53

4 nerves innervating larynx

Vagus
Internal laryngeal
External laryngeal
Recurrent laryngeal

54

Internal laryngeal nerve

Sensory: innervates larynx for cough reflex

55

External laryngeal nerve

Motor: Innervates cricothyroid muscles

56

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

More significant motor nerve, innervates larynx muscles and voice box except cricothyroid

57

Larynx skeleton

8 hyaline cartilages, 1 elastic-- connected by elastic membranes

58

Hyoid bone

Attachment for tongue muscles above, larynx below and pharynx behind

59

3 single laryngeal cartilages

Thyroid
Cricoid
Epiglottis

60

Thyroid cartilage

Open book-- Biggest, doesnt forma complete ring

61

Laryngeal prominence

Adams apple on thyroid cartilage

62

Thyroid membrane

Elastic membrane connects thyroid cartilage with hyoid bone above

63

Cricoid cartilage

Ring-- snterior is thin, posterior is thick

64

2 membranes on cricoid cartilge

Cricothyroid-- thyroid cartilage above
Cricotracheal-- rings below

65

Epiglottis

Leaf of elastic cartilage connected to thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone. Moves down to block laryngeal inlet

66

When is the epiglottis open

During air exchange

67

What covers the epiglottis

Taste-bud mucosa

68

3 paired laryngeal cartilages

Arytenoid
Corniculate
Cuneiform

69

Arytenoid cartilage

Pyramid-- sits on top of cricoid and acts as a pivot. Vocal processes on anterior, muscle processes on posteriro

70

5 components of voice box

2 vocal ligaments
2 vestibular ligaments
Thyroid and arytenoid cartilages
Paired muscles
Glottis

71

4 paired muscles in voice box

Cricothyroid
Thyroarytenoid
Posterior cricoarytenoid
Lateral cricoarytenoid

72

Glottis

Vocal cords and the rima glottidis

73

Rima Glottidis

Opening between two vocal ligaments

74

Vocal ligaments

Form true vocal cords. Made of elastic fibers. No mucosa

75

Vocal fold

Vocal ligaments covered in mucosa

76

What attaches arytenoid cartilage to thyroid cartilage

Vocal ligaments

77

Vestibular Ligaments

Form false vocal cords (no role in voice production). Superior to vocal folds

78

Cricothyroid muscle

Pulls thyroid cartilage forwards (towards origin) to increase tension in vocal ligaments and raise pitch

79

Thyroarytenoid and Vocalis

Shortens vocal ligaments and pulls them towards the centre. Tension is decreased and pitch is lowered

80

2 muscles attaching to muscular processes of cricoid cartilage

Posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid. Effect loudness of pitch and move in opposite direction of vocal processes and ligaments

81

Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle

Abducts and laterally rotates cartilage. Pulls vocal ligaments away from midline and increases loudness

82

Lateral Cricoarytenoid muscle

Adduct and medially rotate cartilage. Pulls vocal ligaments towards midline and decreases loudness

83

Voice production

Release of expired air through glottis

84

Trachea

Tube of connective tissue and smooth muscle descends from larynx into mediastinum

85

How many tracheal rings

16-20 C shaped rings

86

Posterior side of trachea

Free of cartilage but has trachealis muscle. Esophagus is posterior

87

Number of segmental bronchi

Right: 10
Left: 7 or 8

88

Carina

Arch connecting two bronchi

89

Bronchioles

No cartilage rings. Right one is shorter, wider and more vertical

90

Composition of bronchioles

Simple cuboidal epithelium. Cilia are sparse , no mucous producing cells

91

Terminal Bronchioles

End of conducting division, filtered air gets to lungs at 37 degrees

92

Throat cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma of pharyngeal wall or larynx

93

Glottic cancer

Begins in upper portion of larynx, includes epiglottis cancer

94

Subglottic cancer

Begins in lower part of larynx, below vocal cords

95

Stoma

Trachea exposed to surface of neck to allow breathing after laryngectomy

96

Electrolaryngeal speech

Mechanical device produces vibrations in throat-- servox

97

Esophageal speech

Using air in esophagus and pharynx to generate vibrations

98

Tracheo- esophageal speech

Voice prosthesis connects trachea to esophagus using air to generate vibrations

99

Pleural membrane

Two layers of serous membrane, fluid filled pleural cavity between

100

Parietal pleura

Outermost layer lining thorax and diaphragm-- covers more area

101

Visceral pleura

Innermost layer lines lungs

102

Pleural effusion

Fluid buildup in pleural cavity

103

Where do the pleural layers connect?

Root of lung

104

Respiratory bronchioles

Branch from terminal bronchioles. Include alveolar ducts and sacs

105

Alveolar ducts

Protrude from respiratory bronchioles, smooth muscle and connective tissue

106

Alveolar sacs

Clusters of alveoli

107

Respiratory zone

Respiratory bronchioles-- alveolar sacs-- alveoli-- alveolar ducts

108

Type 1 alveolar cells

Make up alveolar walls. Simple squamous epithelium covered in pulmonary capillaries

109

Respiratory membrane

Interface between alveolar and capillary cell membranes. Air- blood barrier

110

Type 2 alveolar cells

Cuboidal, secrete surfactant to decrease surface tension. Non gas exchnage

111

Surfactant

Complex of lipids and proteins. Without it, alveoli would collapse

112

Alveolar macrophage

Dust cells-- remove debris

113

Alveolar pores

How alveoli are connected, equalizes pressure in lungs

114

Lungs

All structures beyond primary bronchi are inside. Occupies all of thoracic cavity except for mediastinum

115

5 things passing through hilus of lung

Slit in medial surface for...
1) Pulmonary arteries
2) Pulmonary veins
3) Bronchi
4) Lymph vessels
5) Nerves

116

Right lung

Upper lobe
Horizontal fissure
Middle
Oblique fissure
Lower

117

Left lung

Upper an lower lobe separated by oblique fissure. Cardiac impression on meidal surface

118

Pulmonary blood supply

Large-volume, low pressure venous blood input. Deoxygenated blood from heart enters capillary network surrounding alveoli

119

What vessels do blood enter and exit the heart through

Exits at left ventricle
Enters heart at right atria

120

Bronchial blood supply

High pressure, small volume. Provides systemic blood to lung tissues except alveoli. Arise at aorta and enter lung at hilus

121

Oder of bronchioles

Conducting
Terminal
Respiratory

122

Bronchogenic carcinoma

Lung cancer

123

Squamous cell carcinoma

Most common-- effects major bronchi branch leading to obstruction

124

Adenocarcinoma

Occurs peripherally and centrally, effecting bronchial epithelium and mucosal glands

125

Small cell carcinoma

Usually central and highly invasive. Most aggressive and disseminates quickly

126

Large cell carcinoma

85% of lung cancer. Arise centrally and invades mediastinum. Disseminates widely

127

Intrathoracic Infiltration

Cancer spreading beyond lungs, into other thoracic organs

128

Paratracheal tumour

Right side: Obstructs superior vena cava
Left side: Carotid artery

129

Peripheral tumour

Chest wall invasion, can involve ribs. Causes pleural effusion

130

Intrapulmonary Mestases

Few symptoms except breathlessness so its hardest to detect

131

Apical tumour

Brachial plexus is involved, can effect ribs and clavicle

132

Mediastinal tumour

Arrthymias, diaphragm palsy, chest pain
-- Inferior to paratracheal

133

Hilar Tumour

Left side. Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy which effects speech

134

RLN on the left

Loops back around subclavian and larynx

135

RLN on the right

Loops around arch of aorta and back up to larynx

136

3 parts of cartilagnious framework of nose

Lateral nasal
Septal
Alar