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BIO 241: Anatomy & Physiology II > Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (141)
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1

Why is food vital to life?

-provides energy
-provides building blocks for growth and maintenance

2

Why do we need a digestive system?

food comes to us as complex molecules and are too large to be absorbed into the blood

3

What are the complex molecules that make up the food that we eat? What do we do with them?

Carbohydrates => monosaccharides

Proteins => amino acids

Fats => Fatty Acids, glycerols, glycerides

4

What is the process of bringing food into the body by consuming via the mouth?

ingestion

5

What is peristalsis?

Movement of food
-Long tube food moves through (digestive tract)
-Movement of food through tube b/c of peristalsis
- Smooth muscle contraction (wave like pattern) moves
the food

6

What is the process of breaking down food into macromolecules called? What are they types?

Digestion
- Physically breaking down molecules (mechanical)
Smaller chunks it’s broken into = greater surface area
for chemical digestion via enzymes

- Chemical digestion: breaks it down into small
absorbable molecules

7

What is absorption? Where does absorption occur?

Absorbing molecules of food once they've been broken down through digestion

Absorption occurs via:
- Bloodstream
- Lymphatics (lipids absorbed here first)

8

What occurs after absorption?

Compaction and defecation
- Compaction: Water absorption
- Defecation: whatever is left

Cannot break it down into absorbable molecules and all water had been absorbed

9

What is the gastrointestinal tract? What is it's organization?

AKA the alimentary canal
- Long tube that begins at mouth and ends at anus

mouth
pharynx
esophagus
stomach
small intestine
large intestine

10

What are accessory organs of the digestive system? What are they?

everything that isn’t part of GI tract but assists in digestion

Mechanical digestion
- Teeth
- Tongue

Chemical Digestion
- Salivary Glands
- Liver
- Gallbladder
- Pancreas

11

What are the tissue layers of the gastrointestinal tract?

Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis Externa, Serosa or Adventitia

12

What is the tissue layer of the gastrointestinal tract, Mucosa?

Epithelium: actually in contact w/ food
- All absorption occurs here

Lamina Propria: thin layer of connective tissue

Muscularis Mucosae: thin layer of smooth muscle creates lots of folds = increased surface area

13

What is the tissue layer of the gastrointestinal tract, Submucosa?

loose connective tissue

14

What is the tissue layer of the gastrointestinal tract, Muscularis Externa?

lots of smooth muscle
- inner circular layer:
- outer longitudinal layer

15

What is the tissue layer of the gastrointestinal tract, Serosa or Adventitia?

connective tissue to anchor the GI tract

- Adventitia: organs that are tightly anchored in place

- Serosa: thinner connective tissue for some organs in
abdominal cavity that are not anchored as tightly (most
organs in abdominopelvic area)

16

What is the enteric nervous system?

local network of nerves within GI tract

- submucosal plexus: network of nerves within the
submucosa

- myenteric plexus: network of nerves within the two
layers of smooth muscle in the muscularis externa

17

What is the peritoneum?

A continuous membrane which lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs

18

What are the parietal and visceral layers of the peritoneum?

Parietal (outer) vs. visceral(inner) : layers of peritoneum

- Parietal covers the (external) abdominopelvic wall

- Visceral covers the surface of the organs

19

What is the peritoneal cavity?

Potential space between parietal and visceral layers of the peritoneum
- Filled w/ fluid to reduce friction

20

What is the Dorsal mesentery?

visceral peritoneum (part of continuation of serosa)
- Usually just called the mesentary
- Anchors small intestine

21

What is the Ventral mesentary?

visceral peritoneum (contains the serosa) but most anterior portion
- lesser omentum: anchors superior border of stomach to
liver
- greater omentum: anchors inferior border of stomach to
large intestine

22

What is the Mesocolon?

membrane that anchors the large intestine

23

What are the boundaries of the oral cavity?

Anterior boundary: behind teeth
Posterior boundary: oropharynx

Superior boundary: palates

24

What is the difference between the hard palate and the soft palate?

Hard palate: bone (maxillary and palatine bones)

Soft Palate: palatoglossal + palatopharyngeal arches
- Muscle covered in epithelium

25

What are the palatoglossal arches?

Part of the oral cavity
- anterior arches on each side of uvula

26

What are the palatopharyngeal arches?

Part of the oral cavity
- posterior to palatoglossal arches (end of oral cavity)

27

What anchors the tongue and keeps you from swallowing it?

frenulum

28

What is the vestibule?

part of oral cavity
- behind lips but in front of teeth

29

What is the fauces?

Part of the oral cavity
- opening leading to oropharynx

30

What are the intrinsic muscles of the tongue? What movements is it used for?

Muscles that compose the tongue
- Tongue roller; bowing up