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BIO 241: Anatomy & Physiology II > The Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Blood Deck (32)
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What occurs when a cell becomes more specialized?

It becomes less capable of independent existence


What is the internal environment of the cardiovascular system?

Extracellular Fluids

  1. Interstital fluids
  2. Plasma
  3. Lymph

Intracellular Fluids

  1. Cytoplasm


What are the components of blood?

Formed Elements (Cellular Components)

  1. Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, Thrombocytes (Buffy Coat)

Plasma (Fluid Components)

  1. Water
  2. Plasma Proteins
    • albumins, globulins, fibrinogen
  3. Other solutes


What is the hematocrit?

amount of Erythrocytes by % volume


What is the buffy coat?

Leukocytes+ Thrombocytes


Plasma proteins are part of the plasma (fluid) component of blood.  What are the types of plasma proteins?

  1. Albumins: carry non-polar (non-water soluble) substances in the bloodstream
  2. Globulins: Part of the immune system
  3. Fibrinogen: Precursor molecule for Fibrin (Coagulant)

These proteins are LARGE and cannot exit the blood stream


Why do mean have a larger hematocrit?

Men have a higher metabolic rate b/c they have more muscle mass on average

-need more O2 so they have a higher % of erythrocytes to transport more O2 to the muscles


What are the Types of Leukocytes contained within the formed elements?


  1. Neutrophils
  2. Eosinophils
  3. Basophils


  1. Lymphocytes
  2. Monocytes


What is hematopoiesis?

Formation of different blood cells from hemocytoblasts



What is a hemocytoblast?

A pluripotent stem cell that gives rise to Myeloid and Lymphoid stem cells during hematopoiesis


What are Myeloid and Lymphoid stem cells?

Derived from the Hemocytoblast during Hematopoiesis

Myeloid Stem Cells

  • Erythrocytes, Megakaryocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes

Lymphoid Stem Cells

  • Lymphocytes (B+T Cells)


How does the bone marrow know what kinds of cells to create during hematopoiesis?

Growth Factors

  1. Erythropoietin:  Erythrocyte production
  2. Thrombopoietin:  Thrombocyte production
  3. Leukopoietin:  Leukocyte production


What are the stages of blood cell formation?

Yolk Sac Stage

  • Embryonic (3rd wk of pregancy-end of 2nd month)

Hepatic Stage

  • Liver/Spleen production
  • Beginning of 2nd month-just after birth

Myeloid Stage

  • Beginning of 5th month of pregnancy-death


Which organ can tell what blood cells are needed in the blood stream and produce release factors in order to trigger production within the bone marrow?

The Kidneys filter the blood and receive 25% of the blood


What are the characteristics of erythrocytes?

  1. Biconcave disk for larger surface area
  2. Very flexible to fit into small capillaries
  3. Not a true cell b/c no nucleus
  4. Sacs of hemoglobin
  5. Last approx 4 months


What are the characteristics of Hemoglobin (Hb)?

  1. 4 Globins per Hemoglobin
    • Each containing a Heme Group
    • 4 globins/Hb = 4 Heme groups/Hb
  2. Each Heme group contains Fe2+
    • Each Heme group can bind one O2
    • 1 Hb can bind 4 O2's
  3. 1 Globin can carry 1 CO2

~280 million Hemoglobin molecules per Erythrocyte


What substances are needed for the synthesis of Erythrocytes?

  1. Iron (Fe2+)
  2. Globulin
  3. Vitamin B12
  4. Erythropoietin


How is Erythropoietin regulated?


What occurs when an erythrocyte is destroyed?

Destroyed by Liver and Spleen and then recycled



Walk through the life and Death of an Erythrocyte.


What are the types of Leukocytes and their jobs?


  1. Neutrophils: phagocytosis
  2. Eosinophils: Histaminases to break down histamine and anti-parasitic
  3. Basophils: secrete histamine and become mast cells when they leave the blood stream


  1. Lymphocytes: immunity
  2. Monocytes: phagocytosis and become macrophages when they leave the blood stream


How are pathogens contained?


  1. Chemotactic Factors (CF) are released by the injury site
  2. Margination: Leukocytes move toward Blood Vessel Wall following CF
  3. Pavementing: Leukocyte pushes against blood vessel wall
  4. Diapedesis: Leukocyte 1/2 in and 1/2 out
  5. Emigration: Leukocyte moves to highest concentration of CF (at injury site)


How to leukocytes move during chemotaxis?  How long do leukocytes live?

Move using Ameboid Motion

Lifespan is 4-5 days


What are the characteristics of thrombocytes?

Cytoplasmic fragments shed from Megakaryocytes that reside in the Red Bone Marrow

  1. Formed as a result of growth factor thrombopoietin
  2. Biconvex disc
  3. Not a true cell (no nucleus or organelles)
  4. Clotting Factor
  5. Lifespan 5-9 days


What is Hemostasis and what occurs?

Control of Bleeding

After a Vascular injury:

  1. Vascular Spasm:  smooth muscle contraction constricts blood vessel(s)
  2. Platelet Plug Formation
    • Adhesion: platelets stick to wound site
      • On the collagen of epithelial tissue
    • Release Reaction: Clotting factors are released
    • Aggregation: more platelets stick
  3. Coagulation: Blood becomes "jellified" = Clot


What kind of feedback system is the release reaction step of the platelet plug formation during hemostasis?

Positive Feedback

  • Clotting Factors initiate aggregation
  • More platelets attracted to wound site
  • These platelets release more clotting factors which attract more thrombocytes


How does coagulation (clotting) occur?

Two Pathways:

  1. Extrinsic Pathway: Clotting Factors released from injured tissue
  2. Intrinsic Pathway: Clotting Factors released from Blood

Both pathways lead to formation of Clotting Factor 10

  1. CF 10 Activate Prothrombinase
  2. Prothrombinase converts Prothrombin to Thrombin
  3. Thrombin converts Fibrinogen to Fibrin
  4. Fibrin forms the Fibrin Polymer+Platelet Plug = Clot


How does Fibrin+Thrombocytes form a clot?

Fibrin attaches to other fibrin to form a polymer.  The Gaps are then filled in with platelets to form a plug.


What is syneresis?

Clot Retraction

  • The wound site shrinks to reduce amount of tissue regeneration


What is Fibrinolysis?

Clot Dissolution

  • Clotting Factor 12 is released by wound site with other CF's
  • CF12 works much slower than other CF's
  • After clot forms, CF12 initiates breakdown of clot
  • Breaks down Fibrin Polymer