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BIO 241: Anatomy & Physiology II > Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproductive System Deck (62)
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What is the essence of reproduction?

Two parents and therefore not genetically identical gametes
- fertilization produces a zygote, which has its own genetics


What is the role of the male in reproduction?

produce sperm
introduce sperm into the female body


What is the role of the female in reproduction?

produce ova (eggs)
receive sperm and provide for union of the gametes
harbor an embryo/fetus and give birth
nourish offspring


What are the primary sex organs? What are the secondary sex organs?

gonads – ovaries and testes

everything else related to reproduction


What is the dartos fascia (muscle)?

Smooth muscle fibers responsible for the pigmentation that are part of the scrotum

When cold, the dartos muscle fibers contract the skin and make the scrotum wrinkle


What is the Cremaster muscle?

Smooth muscle that pulls up the testis


How is Temperature regulation accomplished by the testes?

Testes need to be kept at a slightly cooler body temp than 98.6 so the cremaster muscle assisted by the dartos fascia are responsible for raising or lowering the testes to regulate temperature
- closer to body to raise temp
- away from body to cool temp


What is the Cremaster reflex?

This reflex is elicited by lightly stroking or poking the superior and medial (inner) part of the thigh—regardless of the direction of stroke. The normal response is an immediate contraction of the cremaster muscle that pulls up the testis ipsilaterally (on the same side of the body)


What are the layers covering the testes?

Tunica vaginalis - serous membrane continuous w/ the scrotum

Tunica albuginea - fibrous membrane covering the testes


How many lobules make up each testi?



What are seminiferous tubules?

location of meiosis, and the subsequent creation of male gametes called spermatozoa


What is the anatomy of the seminiferous tubule?

Basement Membrane

Germinal epithelium
1) Germ Cells: spermatogenesis
2) Sustentacular (sertoli) cells: spermiogenesis and secretes inhibin



What are the Interstitial Cells (of Leydig)?

cells found adjacent to (not in) seminiferous tubules that secrete testosterone


Go through the process of spermatogenesis.

Spermatogonium produced by seminiferous tubules can undergo mitosis or differentiate into spermatozoa (commit to becoming spermatozoa.

(1) 1º Spermatocyte (2n4c) undergoes 1st meiotic division → (2) 2º spermatocytes (1n2c) undergoes 2nd meiotic division → 4 spermatids (1n1c) → begin spermiogenesis


Go through the process of spermiogenesis.

Spermatids mature in the sertoli (sustentacular) cells
- nourishment, waste removal, and blood-testis barrier

Anatomical maturation
1) Head: (nucleus + acrosome)
2) Midpiece: (mitochondria)
3) Tail: (flagellum)


Walk through the ducts that sperm must travel through to exit the body.

Made in seminiferous tubules →Straight Tubules→Rete Testis→Efferent Tubules→Ductus Epididymus→Ductus (vas) deferens→Ejaculatory Duct


Walk through the ducts that sperm must travel through to exit the body.

Made in seminiferous tubules →Straight Tubules→Rete Testis→Efferent Ductules→Ductus Epididymus→Ductus (vas) deferens→Ejaculatory Duct →Urethra+Penis


What is the ductus epididymus?

storage/maturation sight for sperm cells
- Sperm must sit here for a couple of weeks to mature and become a functional sperm cell
- 40 to 60 days to mature
- resorption if unused


What is the ductus deferens?

Vas deferens

From epididumis sperm moves through vas deferens out of scrotum
- Persistalsis moves the sperm

the end of the vas deferens is the ampulla and this is the point where it empties into the ejaculatory duct which leads to the urethra
- prostatic urethra goes through prostate and joins with the seminal vesicle duct which both adds fluid to the sperm and leads to the ejaculatory duct


What is the Ejaculatory Duct?

ejaculatory duct passes into prostate gland and eventually joins urethra


What are the parts of the urethra?

Three Parts:
- prostatic
- membranous
- spongy (erectile penile)


What are the accessory sex glands?

Seminal vesicles (60% of semen)

Prostate gland (30% of semen)

Bulbourethral glands (2)


What is the accessory sex gland, the Seminal vesicles?

fructose = energy source

prostaglandins = promotes swimming of sperm cells (motility) and contraction of smooth muscle in the vagina

proseminogelin (fibrin-like) = clotting enzyme; when activated (seminogelin) it sticks sperm to cervix until ready to move


What is the accessory sex gland, the Prostate gland?

Sperm has to come in contact w/ fluids from prostate gland to become mature

Citrate, calcium, phosphate = activate mitochondria of the sperm cell (energy production)

Clotting enzymes = activate proseminogelin

Serine protease = breaks down seminogelin clot = sperm start swimming


What are the accessory sex glands, the Bulbourethral glands?

Located in membranous urethra

Pre-ejaculatory fluid = before ejaculation =

Acid buffers = urine in urethra + vaginal canal are low pH
Prime urethra so good environment for sperm cells

Mucus = ease of movement for sperm through urethra


What is semen?

Sperm (10%) + accessory gland secretions (90%)
2 – 5 ml per ejaculate with 50 – 120 million sperm per ml


What happens during ejaculation?

prostatic fluid and seminal vesicle fluids mixed at emission

proseminogelin → seminogelin by prostatic clotting enzymes
- semen becomes sticky
- entangles sperm, sticks semen to vaginal and cervical surfaces
- prevents semen from draining out of vagina

prostatic serine protease breaks down seminogelin after 20-30 min
- semen liquefies
- sperm become very active
- prostaglandins help to thin cervical mucus plug and may stimulate uterine contractions, helping sperm into uterine cavity


What requirements for sperm motility are met by the ejaculation process?

vaginal pH (3.5 – 4.0) brought to 7.5

fructose and other sugars provide substrate for sperm ATP production


What are the parts of the penis?

Internal = root and crura

- body (shaft)
- glans (head) with prepuce


What are the erectile tissues of the penis?

corpora cavernosa (2)

corpus spongiosum