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BIO 241: Anatomy & Physiology II > Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (93)
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1

What is the number one function of respiration?

Gas Exchange

2

What are the other functions of respiration besides gas exchange?

1. Receptors for smell
2. Filter, warm, and moisten incoming air
3. Some structures can Produce sounds (phonation)
4. Eliminate some wastes other than CO2
(water vapor, alcohol, ketones)

3

What is respiration?

Exchange of gases between the atmosphere, blood, and body cells

4

What are the three basic processes of respiration?

1. Pulmonary ventilation: moving air in/out
2. External Respiration: Gas exchange between air and blood
- Bring air into lungs and exchanges gas w/ blood
3. Internal Respiration: Gas exchange between blood and cells of body
- The blood circulates through body and exchanges gas w/ cells

5

Why is oxygen necesssary during respiration?

Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain during the generation of ATP

6

The respiratory system can be divided into what two parts?

Upper Respiratory Tract: Anything above the larynx

Lower Respiratory Tract: Anything below the larynx

7

The respiratory system can be divided into what two functions?

Conducting: Airways

Respiratory: Where gas exchange takes place (respiratory bronchioles and alveoli)

8

What makes up the nose anatomy?

1. External Nose
2. Internal Nose
3. Nasal Cavity
4. Paranasal air sinuses

9

What is the external nose?

The actual nose composed of cartilage, muscles, skin

10

What makes up the nasal cavity?

1. External nose+Internal Nose
2. Covered in mucosa
3. Nasal Conchae
-Also called turbinate bones,
-As you inhald the air gets swirled around turbinate
bones
-Air contacts more surface area to filter w/ mucus and
warm the air

11

What does the nose do? (physiology)

1. Filter, warm, moisten air
2. Olfaction
-olfactory receptors transmit signals through the
cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone
3. Resonating chamber
-Sounds resonates within chamber of nose

12

What is the pharynx?

muscular tube made up of constrictor muscles and located posterior to the internal naris and superior to esophagus and larynx

13

What are the divisions of the pahrynx?

Pharynx has 3 different divisions posterior to internal nose (behind internal naris)
1. Nasopharynx
2. Oropharynx: behind the mouth
3. Laryngopharynx: behind the larynx

14

What is the epiglottis?

cartilage that covers the glottis (hole that air passes through to trachea) to divide air/food from larynx/esophagus
-When you swallow the epiglottis stays in place but the larynx moves up to close the glottis off

15

What is the larynx?

the hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords

16

What is the larynx made of?

9 types of cartilage
-the thyroid cartilage is the largest
-the cricoid cartilage is a full ring of cartilage that sits below the thyroid cartilage

17

What is contained within the glottis?

Looking down the glottis you can see the:
-Vestibular folds: false vocal cords
-Vocal folds: true vocal cords

18

How does voice production occur?

as the vocal cords Abduct (relax) they spread and you make a lower sound as the adduct (contract) they come together and produce higher pitch sound

19

Where is the trachea located?

Base of larynx to where trachea splits into primary/secondary bronchi

20

What are the layers of the trachea?

Lumen -> Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium -> Submucosa -> C-shaped Hyaline Cartilage -> Adventitia (connective tissue)

21

What is significant about the Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium of the trachea?

Contains goblet cells that secrete mucin which when mixed with water form mucus

22

What is the Mucociliary escalatator?

The cilia of the trache beat upwards in unison. The mucus in the trachea that traps particles is brought upwars and expelled

23

What is contained within the submucosa of the trachea?

contains mucus glands

24

What is significant about the cartilage in the trachea?

Keep trachea open and prevent collapse due to pressure changes

C-Shaped
-the posterior side of the cartilage is open to allow for stretch of esophagus

25

What is the adventitia of the trachea?

connective tissue which anchors the trachea in place

26

What is Laryngospasm?

If anything other than air touches the tracheal epithelium there is an automatic coughing reflex called Laryngospasm
-Muscles surrounding glottis contract to restrict particles from entering
-Trouble speaking

27

The trachea ends at the bronchial tree. Walk through the bronchial tree, from beginning to end.

Primary Bronchi -> Secondary Bronchi -> Tertiary Bronchi -> Bronchioles -> Terminal Bronchioles -> Respiratory Broncioles -> Alveolar Ducts and Sacs -> Alveoli

28

What are the characteristics of the Primary Bronchi?

Right and left bronchi are right before you enter the lungs

29

What are the characteristics of the Secondary Bronchi?

Called lobar b/c they enter the lobes of the lung

30

How many lobes are in the right lung and the left lung?

Right - 3
Left - 2