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BIO 241: Anatomy & Physiology II > Respiratory System > Flashcards

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What is the number one function of respiration?

Gas Exchange


What are the other functions of respiration besides gas exchange?

1. Receptors for smell
2. Filter, warm, and moisten incoming air
3. Some structures can Produce sounds (phonation)
4. Eliminate some wastes other than CO2
(water vapor, alcohol, ketones)


What is respiration?

Exchange of gases between the atmosphere, blood, and body cells


What are the three basic processes of respiration?

1. Pulmonary ventilation: moving air in/out
2. External Respiration: Gas exchange between air and blood
- Bring air into lungs and exchanges gas w/ blood
3. Internal Respiration: Gas exchange between blood and cells of body
- The blood circulates through body and exchanges gas w/ cells


Why is oxygen necesssary during respiration?

Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain during the generation of ATP


The respiratory system can be divided into what two parts?

Upper Respiratory Tract: Anything above the larynx

Lower Respiratory Tract: Anything below the larynx


The respiratory system can be divided into what two functions?

Conducting: Airways

Respiratory: Where gas exchange takes place (respiratory bronchioles and alveoli)


What makes up the nose anatomy?

1. External Nose
2. Internal Nose
3. Nasal Cavity
4. Paranasal air sinuses


What is the external nose?

The actual nose composed of cartilage, muscles, skin


What makes up the nasal cavity?

1. External nose+Internal Nose
2. Covered in mucosa
3. Nasal Conchae
-Also called turbinate bones,
-As you inhald the air gets swirled around turbinate
-Air contacts more surface area to filter w/ mucus and
warm the air


What does the nose do? (physiology)

1. Filter, warm, moisten air
2. Olfaction
-olfactory receptors transmit signals through the
cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone
3. Resonating chamber
-Sounds resonates within chamber of nose


What is the pharynx?

muscular tube made up of constrictor muscles and located posterior to the internal naris and superior to esophagus and larynx


What are the divisions of the pahrynx?

Pharynx has 3 different divisions posterior to internal nose (behind internal naris)
1. Nasopharynx
2. Oropharynx: behind the mouth
3. Laryngopharynx: behind the larynx


What is the epiglottis?

cartilage that covers the glottis (hole that air passes through to trachea) to divide air/food from larynx/esophagus
-When you swallow the epiglottis stays in place but the larynx moves up to close the glottis off


What is the larynx?

the hollow muscular organ forming an air passage to the lungs and holding the vocal cords


What is the larynx made of?

9 types of cartilage
-the thyroid cartilage is the largest
-the cricoid cartilage is a full ring of cartilage that sits below the thyroid cartilage


What is contained within the glottis?

Looking down the glottis you can see the:
-Vestibular folds: false vocal cords
-Vocal folds: true vocal cords


How does voice production occur?

as the vocal cords Abduct (relax) they spread and you make a lower sound as the adduct (contract) they come together and produce higher pitch sound


Where is the trachea located?

Base of larynx to where trachea splits into primary/secondary bronchi


What are the layers of the trachea?

Lumen -> Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium -> Submucosa -> C-shaped Hyaline Cartilage -> Adventitia (connective tissue)


What is significant about the Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium of the trachea?

Contains goblet cells that secrete mucin which when mixed with water form mucus


What is the Mucociliary escalatator?

The cilia of the trache beat upwards in unison. The mucus in the trachea that traps particles is brought upwars and expelled


What is contained within the submucosa of the trachea?

contains mucus glands


What is significant about the cartilage in the trachea?

Keep trachea open and prevent collapse due to pressure changes

-the posterior side of the cartilage is open to allow for stretch of esophagus


What is the adventitia of the trachea?

connective tissue which anchors the trachea in place


What is Laryngospasm?

If anything other than air touches the tracheal epithelium there is an automatic coughing reflex called Laryngospasm
-Muscles surrounding glottis contract to restrict particles from entering
-Trouble speaking


The trachea ends at the bronchial tree. Walk through the bronchial tree, from beginning to end.

Primary Bronchi -> Secondary Bronchi -> Tertiary Bronchi -> Bronchioles -> Terminal Bronchioles -> Respiratory Broncioles -> Alveolar Ducts and Sacs -> Alveoli


What are the characteristics of the Primary Bronchi?

Right and left bronchi are right before you enter the lungs


What are the characteristics of the Secondary Bronchi?

Called lobar b/c they enter the lobes of the lung


How many lobes are in the right lung and the left lung?

Right - 3
Left - 2