Disease Prevention and Promoting Health Flashcards Preview

Nutrition > Disease Prevention and Promoting Health > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disease Prevention and Promoting Health Deck (50)
Loading flashcards...
1

how does the government try to guide the population towards a healthy diet

through publication of “nutritional guidelines” and “dietary recommendations”

2

what are nutritional guidelines largely based upon

-avoidance of deficiency symptoms
-lowered risk of chronic diseases especially cardiovascular disease

3

type of study: compare “nutrition” (intake, status) and health outcome in a population or between populations

Ecological and cross-sectional studies

4

type of study: takes “nutrition” measures and then follows the subjects over time

prospective study

5

type of study: compares “nutrition” in cases vs. controls

case control study

6

type of study: testing a hypothesis by modifying “nutrition” – randomised controlled trial

intervention study

7

type of study: a statistical analysis that combines data from separate but similar studies

meta analysis

8

what are the hierarchy of evidence

-properly randomized, controlled trial (best
-Well-designed controlled trial without randomization
-Well-designed cohort or case-control analytic study
-Multiple time series with or without intervention
-Opinions of respected authorities; descriptive studies or case reports; reports of expert committees

9

what is the problem with the first three "best" hierarchy evidence

they can be problematic for nutrition studies

10

in the diet pyramid, what should we have the least amount of servings of and the most of?

least: fat, oils, and sweets
most: bread, cereal, rice, and pasta group (6-11 servings)

11

current problems with the US diet

we eat more solid fats, sugar, sodium and refined grains and less vegetables, fruits, whole grains, milk, oils and fish

12

what is the heavy toll of diet related chronic diseases

there is a high percentage of people with CVD, diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and osteoporosis

all of which could be avoided with better health

13

define nutrient dense foods and beverages

􏰇-Provide vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial substances and relatively few calories without
• Solid fats in the food or added to it
• Added sugars
• Added refined starches
• Added sodium

􏰇-Retain naturally occurring components, such as dietary fiber

14

what foods are considered nutrient dense

All vegetables, fruits, whole grains, seafood, eggs, beans and peas, unsalted nuts and seeds, fat-free and low-fat dairy, and lean meats and poultry are nutrient dense when prepared without solid fats or sugars

15

proportion of disease prevalence attributed to obesity in USA -- in descending order

Type 2 diabetes
uterine cancer
gall bladder disease
osteoarthritis
hypertension and coronary heart disease
breast and colon cancer

16

is there evidence that a low carb/high protein or low fat diets are better for you than a normal diet?

no

17

what types of diet have been shown to work

"low energy density" diets which means lower calories but plenty of micronutrients (aka plenty of fruits and veggies)

18

what are important modifiable factors that can help manage weight

-calories consumed in foods and beverages
-calories expended doing physical activity

so CALORIE BALANCE OVER TIME IS KEY!!!

19

for kids less than 2, children and adolescents, and adults -- where do the highest sources of calories come from?

kids less than 2: grain based desserts and yeast bread
children and adolescent: grain based desserts and pizza
adults: grain based desserts and yeast bread

20

physical activity recommendation for 6-17 years old

60 minutes or more of moderate of vigorous physical activity a day

21

physical activity recommendation for 18-64 years old

150 minutes a week of moderate intensity activity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous intensity activity

22

physical activity recommendation for those 65+

if they cannot meet adult guidelines then they should be as physically active as their abilities and conditions will allow

23

principles for promoting calorie balance

-Monitor food and beverage intake, physical activity, and body weight
􏰇-Reduce portion sizes
􏰇-When eating out, make better choices 􏰇
-Limit screen time

24

high sodium intake is associated with what condition

high blood pressure

25

where does most dietary sodium come from

salt

26

what is a way to decrease blood pressure

lowering salt intake

27

sodium recommendation reduction

2300mg per day

28

further reduction of sodium to 1500mg per day for what group of people

• Adults ages 51+ yr
• African Americans ages 2+ yr
• People ages 2+ yr with high blood pressure, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease

29

just know that there is no evidence lowering sodium intake to 1500mg per day for certain population is beneficial but there is evidence that reducing sodium intake to 2300mg per day is beneficial

ok thank V nasty!

30

advice to reduce sodium intake

• Read the Nutrition Facts label for information on sodium content of foods, and purchase foods low in sodium
• Consume more fresh foods and fewer processed foods high in sodium
• Eat more foods prepared at home, where you have more control, and use little or no salt or salty seasonings when cooking and eating foods
• When eating at restaurants, ask that salt not be added to your food, and order lower sodium options if available

31

what type of fat increase LDL

saturated fats, trans fat, cholesterol

32

what type of fat reduces HDL

trans fat

33

saturated fats, trans fat, cholesterol all lead to an increased risk in what condition

CVD

34

recommendations for saturated fats, trans fat, and cholesterol

saturated fat - less than 10% of calories (can go as low as 7%)
trans fat - as low as possible
cholesterol - less than 300mg per day

35

what can you replace saturated fats with

mono and poly unsaturated fats

36

examples of good fats

cotton seed oil, soft margarine, peanut oil, soybean oil, olive oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, canola oil, safflower oil

37

examples of bad fats

coconut oil, palm kernel oil, butter, beef fat, palm oil, pork fat, chicken fat, shortening, stick margarine

38

sources of trans fat

snack: cakes, cookies, crackers, pies
animal products
margarine
fried potatoes
potato chips, corn chips, popcorn
shortening
candy, breakfast cereals, other foods

39

why should SoFAS (solid fats and sugars) be reduced from our intake of calories

because it provides 35% of calories without actually contributing any nutrients

40

two big sources of added sugars

sodas, energy drinks, sport drinks (counts as one)
grain based desserts

41

what should refined grains be replaced with

whole grains

42

why should you replace refined grains with whole grains

because though enriched refined grains provide some vitamins and minerals, they do not have the fiber that whole grains have

43

sources of refined grains

yeast bread and pizza

44

what is considered an alcoholic drink

12 fluid ounces of regular beer (5% alcohol)
5 fluid ounces of wine (12% alcohol)
1.5 fluid ounces of 80 proof

45

what is considered moderate alcohol consumption

1 drink per day for women
2 drinks per day for men

46

what is considered heavy alcohol consumption

more than 3 drinks/day for women and more than 7/week
more than 4 drinks/day for men and more than 14/week

47

what is considered binge drinking

within 2 hours, more than 4 drinks for women and 5 for men

48

how much alcohol can breast feeding women and pregnant women drink

NONE!!!!

49

what are foods to increase while staying within normal caloric needs

vegetables, fruits, whole grain, milk, seafoods, oil

50

other than fiber, what else does whole grain contain

vitamins, antioxidants, carbs, phytonutrients, minerals (v-camp)