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Flashcards in Disease Prevention and Promoting Health Deck (50)
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how does the government try to guide the population towards a healthy diet

through publication of “nutritional guidelines” and “dietary recommendations”


what are nutritional guidelines largely based upon

-avoidance of deficiency symptoms
-lowered risk of chronic diseases especially cardiovascular disease


type of study: compare “nutrition” (intake, status) and health outcome in a population or between populations

Ecological and cross-sectional studies


type of study: takes “nutrition” measures and then follows the subjects over time

prospective study


type of study: compares “nutrition” in cases vs. controls

case control study


type of study: testing a hypothesis by modifying “nutrition” – randomised controlled trial

intervention study


type of study: a statistical analysis that combines data from separate but similar studies

meta analysis


what are the hierarchy of evidence

-properly randomized, controlled trial (best
-Well-designed controlled trial without randomization
-Well-designed cohort or case-control analytic study
-Multiple time series with or without intervention
-Opinions of respected authorities; descriptive studies or case reports; reports of expert committees


what is the problem with the first three "best" hierarchy evidence

they can be problematic for nutrition studies


in the diet pyramid, what should we have the least amount of servings of and the most of?

least: fat, oils, and sweets
most: bread, cereal, rice, and pasta group (6-11 servings)


current problems with the US diet

we eat more solid fats, sugar, sodium and refined grains and less vegetables, fruits, whole grains, milk, oils and fish


what is the heavy toll of diet related chronic diseases

there is a high percentage of people with CVD, diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and osteoporosis

all of which could be avoided with better health


define nutrient dense foods and beverages

􏰇-Provide vitamins, minerals, and other beneficial substances and relatively few calories without
• Solid fats in the food or added to it
• Added sugars
• Added refined starches
• Added sodium

􏰇-Retain naturally occurring components, such as dietary fiber


what foods are considered nutrient dense

All vegetables, fruits, whole grains, seafood, eggs, beans and peas, unsalted nuts and seeds, fat-free and low-fat dairy, and lean meats and poultry are nutrient dense when prepared without solid fats or sugars


proportion of disease prevalence attributed to obesity in USA -- in descending order

Type 2 diabetes
uterine cancer
gall bladder disease
hypertension and coronary heart disease
breast and colon cancer


is there evidence that a low carb/high protein or low fat diets are better for you than a normal diet?



what types of diet have been shown to work

"low energy density" diets which means lower calories but plenty of micronutrients (aka plenty of fruits and veggies)


what are important modifiable factors that can help manage weight

-calories consumed in foods and beverages
-calories expended doing physical activity



for kids less than 2, children and adolescents, and adults -- where do the highest sources of calories come from?

kids less than 2: grain based desserts and yeast bread
children and adolescent: grain based desserts and pizza
adults: grain based desserts and yeast bread


physical activity recommendation for 6-17 years old

60 minutes or more of moderate of vigorous physical activity a day


physical activity recommendation for 18-64 years old

150 minutes a week of moderate intensity activity or 75 minutes a week of vigorous intensity activity


physical activity recommendation for those 65+

if they cannot meet adult guidelines then they should be as physically active as their abilities and conditions will allow


principles for promoting calorie balance

-Monitor food and beverage intake, physical activity, and body weight
􏰇-Reduce portion sizes
􏰇-When eating out, make better choices 􏰇
-Limit screen time


high sodium intake is associated with what condition

high blood pressure


where does most dietary sodium come from



what is a way to decrease blood pressure

lowering salt intake


sodium recommendation reduction

2300mg per day


further reduction of sodium to 1500mg per day for what group of people

• Adults ages 51+ yr
• African Americans ages 2+ yr
• People ages 2+ yr with high blood pressure, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease


just know that there is no evidence lowering sodium intake to 1500mg per day for certain population is beneficial but there is evidence that reducing sodium intake to 2300mg per day is beneficial

ok thank V nasty!


advice to reduce sodium intake

• Read the Nutrition Facts label for information on sodium content of foods, and purchase foods low in sodium
• Consume more fresh foods and fewer processed foods high in sodium
• Eat more foods prepared at home, where you have more control, and use little or no salt or salty seasonings when cooking and eating foods
• When eating at restaurants, ask that salt not be added to your food, and order lower sodium options if available