Nutrition I Flashcards Preview

Nutrition > Nutrition I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nutrition I Deck (41)
Loading flashcards...
1

a healthy diet results in what

Appropriate growth and development
Absence of illness or discomfort
Fitness, longevity and optimum health

2

what are key variables that influence nutritional demands and the incidence and presence of disease with a nutritional basis

stage of development (fetus, baby, adult etc)
level of inflammatory stress
previous nutritional exposure in utero
genotype

3

what plays a significant role in morbidity and mortality in a wide range of chronic diseases with a nutritional basis

inflammatory arm of the immune system

4

Why do so many diseases, particularly chronic ones, involve activation of the inflammatory arm of the immune system?

because we are surrounded by microbes and our physiology is designed to resist them

5

what are the pro inflammatory cytokines of the immune system and inflammatory response

IL-1, IL-6, TNFalpha

6

what is the inflammatory response designed to do

combat pathogens and survive injury

7

what is a negative acute phase reactant

albumin

8

what happens to serum albumin when inflammatory response become raised

they decrease

9

what works along side cytokines when there is an inflammatory response

oxidants

10

if body cell mass (body protein content) is greater than 30% of body weight in HIV patients, what is the mean survival

527 days (n=19)

11

if body cell mass (body protein content) is less than 30% of body weight in HIV patients, what is the mean surivial

335 days (n=20)

12

what are some examples of inflammatory response acting in a disadvantageous way in individuals?

inflammatory stimuli can lead to inflammation which leads to:
insulin insensitivity (diabetes mellitus)
hyperlipidemia
atherosclerosis (myocardial infarction)
mortality and morbidity

13

what would be an advantage of the inflammation caused by inflammatory stimuli

pathogen killing

14

factors that influence the level of inflammation in the body and its effects

•Antioxidant intake *
•The type of fat in the diet *
•Obesity *
•Gender
•Aging
•Genetics
* Direct or indirect nutritional influence

15

what does nutrients lead to

growth, development, function, repair

16

what are some important functions of nutrients

-substrates for energy
-building blocks (protein --> cell membrane)
-precursors for physiologically important molecules (cholesterol ----> vit D)
-cofactors for enzyme reactions
-regulators of cell function

17

why are some nutrients considered essential nutrients

they cannot be synthesized in humans and must come from diet

18

examples of essential nutrients

minerals, most vitamins, some amino acids, some fatty acids

19

why are some nutrients considered non essential nutrients

can be synthesized in humans
can come from diet or be synthesized from other essential nutrients or non essential nutrients

20

examples of non essential nutrients

a few vitamins, some amino acids, many fatty acids, carbohydrates

21

what are macronutrients

carbohydrates, proteins, fat, alcohol

22

what are micronutrients

vitamins and minerals

SN: other category called non nutrients (fiber, e.g.)

23

what happens if supply of nutrients does not meet the demand

you have malnutrition

24

what does one see in people where the supply of nutrients does not meet the demand aka those who are malnutritioned

poor growth, impaired development, impaired function, poor repair from damage and injury, illness, and death

25

what happens when supply of nutrients exceeds the demand

-one meets the needs
-excess may be excreted
-excess may be stored (sugar --> glycogen, fat --> adipose tissue, calcium --> bones)

26

what happens if excess nutrients enter the body as fat, protein, or carbohydrate

they all get stored as fat in adipose tissue

27

BMI for some WHO terms as underweight and what is the popular description

less than 18.5kg/m2
thin

28

what is the BMI for healthy/normal/acceptable people

18.5 - 24.9

29

BMI for some WHO terms as grade 1 overweight and what is the popular description

25.0 - 29.9
overweight

30

BMI for some WHO terms as grade 2 overweight and what is the popular description

30 - 39.9
obese

31

BMI for some WHO terms as grade 3 overweight and what is the popular description

greater than 40
morbidly obese

32

what are the patterns of obesity

apple shaped (most of weight carried in the upper half/abdomen)(has a big impact on health --- fat around visceral organs and therefore produces a good number of inflammatory cytokines)
pear shaped (most of weight carried in the hips or lower half)(more subcutaneous fat therefore less inflammatory cytokines)

33

energy balance equation

energy intake - energy expenditure = change in body energy stores

34

what are the components of energy expenditure

activity, thermogenesis (dietary, thermoregulatory, adaptive), and maintenance (BMR)

35

what are the three kinds of malnutrition

undernutrition (protein and energy) --> low food intake
specific deficiencies --> imbalanced nutrient intake
excess energy --> overweight and obesity

36

key factors which influence nutritional demand

stage of life (infant, fetus, adult etc)
rate of growth
level of physical activity
pregnancy and lactation
infection and inflammatory stress
early life influences that sets patterns for life
genes
presence of disease

37

rate of whole body protein synthesis at different stages of life: premature baby, infant aged 1 year, young adult, elderly

premature baby - 17.4
infant - 6.9
young adult - 3
elderly - 1.9

38

what does the rate of whole body protein synthesis impact

speed of wound healing
recovery from infection

39

chronic disease of aging

• (Cardio)vascular disease
• Metabolic disease: Obesity, Type-2 diabetes,
Fatty liver ....
• Sarcopenia
• Osteoporosis
• Respiratory disease
• Cancer
• Cognitive decline and dementia

40

percentage for men and women of mortality due to vascular disease

men - 34%
women - 33%
both percentages higher than those seen in cancer

41

Contribution of infectious diseases to mortality rates around the world -- what two places are they the highest and the lowest?

highest - Africa and Eastern Mediterranean
lowest - Europe and Americas