Flashcards in Lecture 6: Nutrition and Aging Deck (52)
The population is increasing and the proportion of _____ people is increasing?
(life expectancy has increased drastically)
As of 2006, what is the life expectancy at birth by race and sex?
White female: 80.6
Black female: 76.5
White Male: 75.7
Black Male: 69.7
By 2050 what will be the % of adults in population who are elderly in China, India, USA and Germany?
What are the chronic diseases of aging (lifestyle diseases)?
Metabolic diseases: obesity, type 2 DM
Cognitive decline and dementia
Activity of what enzymes involved in xenobiotic detoxification systems decline with aging?
Genetics, Environment and Lifestyle factors lead to what?
Rate of Aging
Age related diseases and
Morbidity and mortality
There are 4 theories of aging, each card will go through one. First is programmed aging, what is this theory?
Limited number of cell divisions and neuroendocrine and brain function decrease
The second theory of aging is the inefficient DNA repair, what is this theory?
Over lifetime proportion of cells carrying abnormal DNA increases
The third theory of aging is free radical damage, what is this theory?
Decreased efficiency of free radical scavenging systems
The fourth theory of aging is summation of cumulative damage to life systems sustained throughout lifetime, what is this theory?
Accumulation of damaged cell lipids and proteins and raised levels of oxidant and inflammatory stress
Why do we consider the elderly as a separate group?
---They have special metabolic, physical, psychological and social problems not found in other age groups
--Multiple pathologies and medications
--Nutritional problems not recognized, undiagnosed and untreated
What is the trend in rates of whole body protein synthesis at different stages of life?
Premature baby: 17.4
Infant aged 1 yr: 6.9
Young Adult: 3.0
--this decrease has an impact on maintenance of muscle mass, speed of wound healing and recovery from infection
Aging is associated with loss of what?
lean body mass particularly skeletal muscle
What are the biological, psychological and sociological nutritional supply and demands in the elderly?
Biology: Supply (disability) and Demand (low lean body mass, inactivity, illness)
Psychological: Supply (dementia and anorexia) and Demand (dementia)
Sociological: Supply (Access, poverty, and isolation) and Demand (institutions)
Growth is about accumulating capacity by increasing what?
Form and function
Aging is about losing capacity by decreasing what?
Form and function
The functional capacity of an individual's tissues and organs (immune system, lungs, and kidney) may _____ and _____ at different rates.
May develop and decline at different rates
Lung maturity usually occurs between ages 18-25 years old, when does total dysfunction of lung occur?
In a healthy person: 130-140 years old
In a person who smokes and has COPD: much earlier in life
What happens in the cardiovascular system as we age?
Atherosclerosis and HTN
What happens in the central nervous system as we age?
Reduced cognitive function
What happens in the musculoskeletal system as we age?
Skeletal muscle atrophy
What happens to the respiratory system as we age?
Reduced lung volume
Obstructive pulmonary disease
What happens in the endocrine system as we age??
Non-insulin dependent diabetes
What happens in the immune system as we age?
General decline in function especially T cells
Studies show that structural and functional decline may be related to poor nutrient intake and vitamin D status. What were the results of the lower extremity function test in these studies?
Performance increased as serum 25(OH)D3 increased up to ca. 40nmol/l ; beyond this improvement was less dramatic
What is the mechanistic explanation for the lower extremity function test results found in the study?
1,25(OH)2D3 binds to VDRE in muscle tissue leading to protein synthesis, muscle cell growth and improved muscle function.
with increasing age, what in the plasma increases during fasting
plasma Triglycerides and C reactive protein
High levels of blood ______ and _____ double mortality risk of health non-disabled elderly
Can the age-related decline in structure, function (and morbidity) be slowed or revered?
---more physical activity
---increased social interaction
--increased mental stimulation