Neonatal and Infant Nutrition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neonatal and Infant Nutrition Deck (52)
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particular issues of infancy

• Immature liver function – prone to jaundice
• Immature kidney function – cannot dilute or concentrate urine
• Immature gut - ‘leaky’ epithelium, lacking commensal flora
• Immature immune system – naïve, less able to produce immune factors and discriminate bad from good (or indifferent) – prone to infection
• Period of intense neurological growth and development
• Immature blood clotting – neonatal coagulopathy


what is best to feed a neonate

breast milk


alternatives for breast milk

wet nurses


population of women who are most likely to initiate breast feeding

-first time mother
-mothers greater than 30 years old
-higher social class scale
-longer in education


socioeconomic and cultural factors that stop women from breast feeding

-medical advice
-maternal work demands
-family pressures
-commercial advertising


biological factors that stop women from breast feeding

infant size, development, growth, increased appetite, maternal lactational ability


major reasons women stop breast feeding at less than 1 week, 1 week - 4 months, greater than 4 months

-less than a week: baby rejected milk
-1 week - 4 months: insufficient milk
-greater than 4 months: mother returned to work


what is the trend of breast feeding as children get older

breast feeding starts higher at 1 week and decreases as child gets older


in countries with highest burden of breast feeding, how can a good percentage of the child death be prevented

by breast feeding the children


mean production of milk a day



how does the content of the milk change over time

-colostrum: milk first produced and it has lots of protein, immunoglobulins, T and B cells
-transitional milk
-mature milk: begins watery to quench baby's thirst but then gets more fatty by the end of breast feeding for nutrition


important content of breast milk

antibodies, immune cells, stem cells


length of time recommended for mother to breast feed

Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond
(the more a child suckles the breast, the more milk is produced)


women who are breastfeeding require how much energy and protein a day

8.10MJ/day = 1,940Kcal/day of energy
45.0g/day of protein
but as the baby age increases, there will be increased demands for protein and energy

intake is 60-80g per day for normal adults so actually no need to increase protein intake


does BMI affect breast milk production



in comparison to human milk, what does cow milk have increased amount of

cow milk has higher protein, sodium, and casein fraction with predominant whey protein (absent in human milk)


in comparison to cow milk, what does human milk have increased amounts of

lactose and whey fraction (absent whey protein)


what is positively related to weight gain during pregnancy

fat content of milk


what vitamins are adequate in breast milk and what substances are breast milk inadequate in

adequate - vitamin A and B6 (depending on maternal diet and nutritional status)
inadequate - vitamin D, iron, and zinc


importance of breast milk proteins

• 285 different proteins have been identified in the proteome of human breast milk
• Source of amino acids
• Promote digestion and absorption of other milk nutrients
• Have a role in defence against pathogens
• Promote gut and immune maturation


main carbohydrate in breast milk and what is it made out of

lactose (glucose + galactose)


why is lactase important

it is useful for hydrolysis of lactose on gut mucosal border before it can be digested


when does lactose intolerance begin and why

at six months because of decline of lactase activity


importance of breast milk fats

• Breast milk ~ 40 g/l fat (= Cow’s milk) and provides ~50% of energy in milk
• Promotes the accumulation of body fat (insulation and energy store)
• Allows for absorption of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K)
• Provides essential fatty acids important in brain and eye development, healthy skin and hair and immunity


when does the brain grow rapidly

from fetus to about 1.5 years


two essential fatty acids in human milk

DHA (docosahexanoic acid) and EPA


what is DHA made out of

DHA has 22 carbons with 6 double bonds


importance of pregnancy to DHA

-it promotes maternal DHA status
-increases DHA content in breast milk
-promotes fetal eye and brain development


importance of DHA in infants and children

-brain and eye development
-improves visual acuity
-promotes cognitive performance


importance of DHA in children and adults

cardiovascular heart health
-lowers triglycerides
-increases HDL
-maintains/lowers heart rate
-modest reduction in blood pressure at higher doses