Flashcards in Disinfection + Sterilization Deck (51):
What is the name for a hospital acquired infection?
What is a Nosocomial infection?
Infection acquired in hospital by the patient, admitted for another reason besides the infection
Why is it important to know about nosocomial infections?
Cost hospitals billions a year
What does SSI stand for?
Surgical Site Infection
What is a SSI?
Infection that occurs after surgery in part of the body where surgery takes place
What are the most common symptoms of an SSI?
Redness and pain
Drainage of cloudy fluid
When should pre-surgical AB's be started?
About 60 minutes before the surgery starts
When should surgical AB's be stopped?
Within 24 hours of surgery ending
What is the normal rate of SSI?
What does antiseptic mean?
Prevents/arrest growth of microorganisms
What is antiseptic placed on?
What does asepsis mean?
Prevention of content with microorganisms
What is an autoclave?
Sterilizes instruments or other objects using steam under pressure
What is a disinfectant?
Chemical/Physical agent that destroys microorganisms
What don't disinfectants kill?
What are disinfectants applied to?
What is a sanitizer?
Agent that reduces number of bacterial contaminants to safe levels as judged by public health requirements
What does being sterile indicate?
State of being free from all living organisms
What are the three levels of disinfectant?
Low + Intermediate + High
What does low level disinfectant?
Vegetative bacteria + Fungi + Influenze
What does intermediate level disinfectant kill?
Enteroviruses + Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
What does high level disinfectant?
Bacterial + Fungal Spores
What are the two types of sterilization?
Physical and Chemical
What are the three examples of physical sterilization?
Heat + Filtration + Radiation
What are the two examples of chemical sterilization?
Ethylene oxide + Hydrogen Peroxide
What is the mechanism of action for steam sterilization?
Destroy microorganisms by irreversible coagulation and denaturation of enzymes and proteins
What machine is used for steam sterilization?
What are the four conditions created by the autoclave?
High temp + Pressurized + Steam + Time
What is the ideal steam in sterilization?
Dry saturated steam + entrained water
What is the point of the pressure in the steam sterilization?
Allows the machine to reach higher temps
What temperature does the autoclave reach? (two temps)
121 + 132 Celcius
How long does the autoclave run at 121/250 degrees?
How long does the autoclave run at 132/270 degrees?
What type of sterlizer does 121 degrees C?
What type of steilizer does 132 degrees C?
What are the three types of sterilizer monitors?
Mechanical + Chemical + Biological
What biologic is used to test steam sterilization?
Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores
When should you not use flash sterilization?
Convenience + Just to save time + Implantable devices
When should flash sterilization be used?
How is flash sterilization done?
Unwrapped objects at 132 for 3 minutes at 28 lbs of pressure
What are the two types of low temp sterilization?
Ethylene oxide + Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide
When is ethylene oxide used?
Sterilizing temperature and moisture sensitive devices
How does the ethylene oxide sterilization work?
Alkylation of protein, DNA, RNA prevents normal cells from metabolism and replication
What are the disadvantages of ETO?
Length of cycle time
Potential hazards (flammable, toxic, carcinogen)
What is the biological indicator for ETO?
What are the five cycles of ETO?
Humidification + Gas + Exposure + Evacuation + Air
How does vaporized H2O2 work?
Generation of destructive hydroxyl and hzdroproxyl free radicals that attach to lipids, DNA + other cell components
What is the big upside to vaporized H2O2?
What are the advantages to vaporized H2O2?
Byproducts non toxic
What are the cycles to vaporized H2O2?
Generator breaks down H2O2