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Surgery I > Disinfection + Sterilization > Flashcards

Flashcards in Disinfection + Sterilization Deck (51):
1

What is the name for a hospital acquired infection?

Nosocomial

2

What is a Nosocomial infection?

Infection acquired in hospital by the patient, admitted for another reason besides the infection

3

Why is it important to know about nosocomial infections?

Cost hospitals billions a year

4

What does SSI stand for?

Surgical Site Infection

5

What is a SSI?

Infection that occurs after surgery in part of the body where surgery takes place

6

What are the most common symptoms of an SSI?

Redness and pain
Drainage of cloudy fluid
Fever

7

When should pre-surgical AB's be started?

About 60 minutes before the surgery starts

8

When should surgical AB's be stopped?

Within 24 hours of surgery ending

9

What is the normal rate of SSI?

~5%

10

What does antiseptic mean?

Prevents/arrest growth of microorganisms

11

What is antiseptic placed on?

Living tissue

12

What does asepsis mean?

Prevention of content with microorganisms

13

What is an autoclave?

Sterilizes instruments or other objects using steam under pressure

14

What is a disinfectant?

Chemical/Physical agent that destroys microorganisms

15

What don't disinfectants kill?

Spores

16

What are disinfectants applied to?

Inanimate objects

17

What is a sanitizer?

Agent that reduces number of bacterial contaminants to safe levels as judged by public health requirements

18

What does being sterile indicate?

State of being free from all living organisms

19

What are the three levels of disinfectant?

Low + Intermediate + High

20

What does low level disinfectant?

Vegetative bacteria + Fungi + Influenze

21

What does intermediate level disinfectant kill?

Enteroviruses + Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

22

What does high level disinfectant?

Bacterial + Fungal Spores

23

What are the two types of sterilization?

Physical and Chemical

24

What are the three examples of physical sterilization?

Heat + Filtration + Radiation

25

What are the two examples of chemical sterilization?

Ethylene oxide + Hydrogen Peroxide

26

What is the mechanism of action for steam sterilization?

Destroy microorganisms by irreversible coagulation and denaturation of enzymes and proteins

27

What machine is used for steam sterilization?

Autoclave

28

What are the four conditions created by the autoclave?

High temp + Pressurized + Steam + Time

29

What is the ideal steam in sterilization?

Dry saturated steam + entrained water

30

What is the point of the pressure in the steam sterilization?

Allows the machine to reach higher temps

31

What temperature does the autoclave reach? (two temps)

121 + 132 Celcius

32

How long does the autoclave run at 121/250 degrees?

30 minutes

33

How long does the autoclave run at 132/270 degrees?

4 minutes

34

What type of sterlizer does 121 degrees C?

Gravity displacement

35

What type of steilizer does 132 degrees C?

Prevacuum sterilizer

36

What are the three types of sterilizer monitors?

Mechanical + Chemical + Biological

37

What biologic is used to test steam sterilization?

Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores

38

When should you not use flash sterilization?

Convenience + Just to save time + Implantable devices

39

When should flash sterilization be used?

Emergencies

40

How is flash sterilization done?

Unwrapped objects at 132 for 3 minutes at 28 lbs of pressure

41

What are the two types of low temp sterilization?

Ethylene oxide + Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide

42

When is ethylene oxide used?

Sterilizing temperature and moisture sensitive devices

43

How does the ethylene oxide sterilization work?

Alkylation of protein, DNA, RNA prevents normal cells from metabolism and replication

44

What are the disadvantages of ETO?

Length of cycle time
Potential hazards (flammable, toxic, carcinogen)

45

What is the biological indicator for ETO?

Bacillus subtilis

46

What are the five cycles of ETO?

Humidification + Gas + Exposure + Evacuation + Air

47

How does vaporized H2O2 work?

Generation of destructive hydroxyl and hzdroproxyl free radicals that attach to lipids, DNA + other cell components

48

What is the big upside to vaporized H2O2?

kills spores

49

What are the advantages to vaporized H2O2?

Byproducts non toxic
Short cycle

50

What are the cycles to vaporized H2O2?

Dehumidify air
VHP created
Air circulated
Generator breaks down H2O2

51

When is ionizing radiation used?

Prepackaged supplies