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Flashcards in Preparation of Surgical Patient Deck (22):
1

Describe asepsis.

Absence of pathogenic microbes on living tissue

2

Describe sterilization.

Process of killing all microorganisms with the use of either physical or chemical agents

3

Describe antiseptic.

Chemical agent that kills pathogenic microorganisms or inhibits growth. Applied to the body

4

Describe disinfectant.

Germicidal, kills microorganisms on inanimate objects

5

What are the two types of antimicrobial agents?

Bacteriostatic + Bacteriocidal

6

Describe antimicrobial agent.

Drug used to alter activity of microbial agents in the patient

7

What would be considered a clean operation?

Non-traumatic wounds w/o inflammation or breaks in surgical technique

8

What would be considered a clean-contaminated operation?

GI/Respiratory tracts entered w/o spillage
Genitourinary/Biliary tract entered w/o infection
Might have minor break in aseptic technique

9

What would be considered a contaminated operation?

Major break in sterile technique
Gross spillage of GI contents
Fresh traumatic wounds
Biliary or Urinary tract when infection

10

What would be considered a dirty operation?

Gross infection is present at time of surgery

11

What are the there reasons for the a decrease resistance in infection?

Geriatric patients
Neoplasia
Immunosuppressive therapy

12

What are the three factors determining whether an infection will result?

Host innate resistance
Characteristics of bacteria
Interaction between host and bacteria

13

What are the five alteration in blood supply?

Clamps
Ligatures
Retractors
Hemorrhage
Thrombosis

14

What are the four major conditions at a surgical site that might lead to infection?

Necrosis
Hematomas
Dead space
Decreased blood supply

15

What is the normal protocol for food removal before the surgery?

12 hours before remove food
Unlimited water

16

What is the protocol for dietary restrictions in pediatric case?

remove food 4 to 6 hours before the surgery

17

What is the protocol about "bladder excretions" before the surgery?

Walk prior to surgery
Express after induction
Catheterize (if possible)

18

What is the border you should clip around incision site?

20 cm

19

What are the characteristics of iodine compounds?

If used alone it is irritating
Skills bacteria + fungi + spores

20

How long do you need to leave on iodine on before it kills spores?

Sporicidal

21

What are the characteristics of alcohol?

doesn't kill spores
Kills bacteria really fast

22

What is the characteristics of chlorhexidine?

Kills gram +/-
Residual activity
Not inactivated by organic material