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Flashcards in DIT Rapid Fire Facts Deck (327):
1

Most common cause of neural tube defects

Folate deficiency

2

Most common cause of congenital malformatins in the US

Alcohol use during pregnancy

3

Most common cause of congenital mental retardation in the US

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

4

Hyperflexible joints, arachnodactyly, aortic dissection, lens dislocation

Marfan Syndrome

5

Hereditary nephritis, cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss

Alport Syndrome

6

Unilateral facial drooping involving the forehead

Bell's Palsy

7

Ptosis, miosis, & anhidrosis

Horner's Syndrome

8

Amyloid deposits in gray matter of brain

Senile plaques (Alzheimer's Disease)

9

Drooling farmer

Organophosphates (Cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning)

10

Inability to breastfeed, amenorrhea, cold intolerance

Sheehan Syndrome

11

Infertility, galactorrhea, bitemporal hemianopsia, low libido, amenorrhea

Prolactinoma

12

Most common tumor of the adrenal

Adrenal Adenoma

13

Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults)

Pheochromocytoma

14

Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids)

Neuroblastoma

15

Most common cause of primary hyperaldosteronism

Adrenal Adenoma (hyperplasia)

16

Medical treatment for hyperaldosteronism

Spironolactone

17

Pheochromocytoma, Medullary thyroid cancer, & hyperParathyroidism

MEN-2A

18

Pheochromocytoma, Medullary thyroid cancer, & Mucosal neuromas

MEN-2B

19

Adrenal disease associated with skin hyperpigmentation

Addison disease (Primary Adrenal Insufficiency)

20

HTN, Hypokalemia, & Metabolic alkalosis

Hyperaldosteronism (Conn syndrome)

21

Most comon thyroid cancer

Papillary Carcinoma

22

Cold intolerance

Hypothyroidism

23

Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei

Orphan Annie eyes seen in Papillary Carcinoma

24

Most common infections seen in chronic granulomatous disease

Catalase + organisms (Staph. aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus, Klebsiella, & Candida)

25

Eczema, recurrent URI, high serum IgE

Job's Syndrome/Hyper-IgE Syndrome (can also describe Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome, but more likely truncal eczema)

26

Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes

Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

27

Protease inhibitors ("Navir (never) tease a protease")

Lopinavir, Atazanavir, Darunavir, Fosamprenavir, Saquinavir, Ritonavir, Indinavir

28

Protease inhibitors class side effects:

GI intolerance, Inhibit CYP450, Hyperlipidemia/ hypertriglyceridemia, Lipodystrophy

29

ASE: Pancreatitis

Ritonavir side effect

30

ASE: Nephrolithiasis

Ritonavir side effect

31

ASE: Hyperbilirubinemia, prolonged PR interval, jaundice

Atazanavir side effect

32

NRTIs ("Have you dined (vudine) with my nuclear (nucleosides) family?"):

Emtricitabine (FTC), Lamivudine (3TC), Zidovudine (ZDV, AZT), Didanosine (ddI), Stavudine (d4T), Abacavir

33

NRTIs must be activated by

Phosphorylation by thymidine kinase

34

NRTI class side effects

Lactic acidosis (except Abacavir)

35

ASE: Pancreatitis, Peripheral neuropathy, Hepatic Steatosis

Didanosine (esp. for pancreatitis & peripheral neuropathy), Stavuidine, Zalcitabine

36

ASE: Bone marrow suppression, Megaloblastic anemia

Zidovudine

37

Given to pregnant women w/ HIV

Used to be Zidovudine (now HAART)

38

Regimen for occupational HIV exposures

Zidovudine + Lamivudine (and maybe a 3rd med too)

39

NtRTI:

Tenofovir (TDF) - doesn't require activation

40

NNRTIs (non-competitive) (-virine, -virapine, and -virenz, -virdine):

Nevirapine, Efavirenz, Delaviridine, Etravirine, Rilpivirine

41

NNRTI class side effects (& Abacavir)

Rash

42

ASE: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (nightmares, vivid dreams, worsening depression), False-positive marijuana (cannabinoid) drug test), Teratogenic

Efavirenz

43

Integrase inhibitors:

Raltegravir, Elvategravir

44

Integrase inhibitors class side effects:

Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperlipidemia, Pancreatitis, Hepatotoxicity

45

Drugs that interfere with HIV envelope proteins:

gp41 - Enfuviritide (fusion inhibitor); gp120 - Maraviroc (blocks CCR-5 receptor on macrophages & T-cells

46

Dysphagia, glossitis, and iron deficiency anemia

Plummer-Vinson Syndrome

47

Hematemesis with vomiting

Mallory-Weiss Syndrome

48

Specialized columnar epithelium/goblet cells on biopsy from distal esophagus

Barrett's esophagus

49

Bx of pt. with esophagitis shows large pink intranuclear inclusions & host cell chromatin that is pushed to edge of the nucleus

Herpes Simplex Virus

50

Bx of pt. with esophagitis shows enlarged cells, intranuclear & cytoplasmic inclusions, and a clear perinuclear halo

CMV

51

Esophageal bx reveals lack of ganglion cells between inner and outer muscular layers

Achalasia

52

Bx of mass in parotid gland reveals double layer of columnar epithelial cells resting on dense lymphoid stroma

Warthin's tumor

53

Protrusion of mucosa in the upper esophagus

Plummer-Vinson Syndrome

54

Outpouching of all layers of esophagus just above the LES

Epiphrenic diverticulum

55

Basal cell hyperplasia, eosinophilia, and elongation of lamina propria papilla seen in biopsy of esophagus

Chronic reflux esophagus

56

A PAS stain on bx obtained from pt. with esophagitis reveals hyphate organisms

Candida esophagitis

57

Esophageal pouch found in upper esophagus

Zenker's diverticulum

58

Painless jaundice

Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma (esp. at head of pancreas)

59

Most common cause of acute pancreatitis

Gallstones & Alcohol

60

Most common cause of chronic pancreatitis

Alcohol abuse

61

Standard treatment for DKA

I.V. fluids, I.V. insulin, and K+

62

Standard treatment for Type 1 DM

Insulin and low-sugar diet

63

Standard treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Weight reduction (exercise), low sugar diet, oral hypoglycemic drugs (Metformin), possibly insulin

64

Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, lymphadenopathy, and hyperpigmentation

Whipple's disease

65

Anti-transglutaminase/ anti-gliadin/ anti-endomysial antibodies

Celiac sprue

66

Vitamin given to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects

Folic acid

67

Total or subtotal atrophy of small bowel villi, plasma cells & lymphocyte infiltration into the lamina propria and epithelium, and hyperplasia/elongation of crypts

Celiac sprue

68

Triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes

Fatty Liver Disease

69

Eosinophilic inclusions in cytoplasm of hepatocytes

Mallory bodies

70

Cancer closely linked to cirrhosis

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

71

Severe hyperbilirubinemia in a neonate

Crigler-Najjar Type 1

72

Mild, benign hyperbilirubinemia

Gilbert Syndrome

73

Treatment for chronic hepatitis

Interferon-alpha (IFN-a)

74

Preferred anticoagulant for immediate anticoagulation

Heparin or LMWH

75

Preferred anticoagulant for long-term anticoagulation

Warfarin

76

Preferred anticoagulant during pregnancy

Heparin or LMWH

77

A boy with self-mutilating behavior, mental retardation, and gout

Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome = HGPRT deficiency

78

Elevated uric acid levels

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome, Tumor-lysis syndrome, Loop or thiazide diuretics, Cyclosporine, Pyrazinamide, Niacin

79

Bluish-colored lines on the gingivae

Burton's lines in Lead poisoning

80

Causes of hypochromic, microcytic anemia

Iron deficiency, Thalassemias, Lead poisoning, Sideroblastic anemia (defect in heme synthesis), beginning of Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD)

81

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Megaloblastic Anemia from B12 or folate deficiency or orotic aciduria

82

Skull x-ray shows a "hair-on-end" appearance

Beta-Thalassemia Major

83

Basophilic stippling of RBCs

Lead poisoning

84

Painful cyanosis of fingers and toes, w/ hemolytic anemia

Cold Agglutinins (IgM)

85

Red urine in the morning, and fragile RBCs

Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hematuria (PNH)

86

Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs

Howell-Jolly Bodies (seen after splenectomy)

87

Autosplenectomy

Sickle Cell Disease

88

Drug used to treat Sickle Cell Disease

Hydroxyurea (↑ production of HbF)

89

Antiplatelet antibodies

Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)

90

Bleeding disorder with GP Ib deficiency

Bernard-Soulier Disease

91

Most common inherited bleeding disorder

von Willebrand Disease

92

Cancer most commonly associated with a noninfectious fever

Hodgkin Lymphoma

93

Smudge cells

CLL

94

Punched out lytic bone lesions

Multiple Myeloma

95

Sheets of lymphoid cells, with a "starry sky" appearance

Burkitt's Lymphoma

96

RBCs clumped together like a stack of coins

Rouleaux formation seen in Multiple Myeloma

97

Monoclonal antibody spike

MGUS, Multiple Myeloma, or Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia

98

Reddish-pink rods in the cytoplasm of leukemic blasts

Auer rods of Myeloperoxidase seen in APL, a form of AML

99

Large B cells with bilobed nuclei and prominent "owl's eye inclusions"

Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin's Lymphoma

100

Treatment of choice for rickets or osteomalacia

Vitamin D

101

Swollen gums, poor wound healing, bleeding mucous membranes, and spots on the skin

Scurvy = vitamin C/ascorbic acid deficiency

102

Most common vitamin deficiency in US

Folate deficiency

103

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Megaloblastic Anemia due to B12 or folate deficiency or orotic aciduria

104

Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, and polyneuropathy

Beri-Beri, thiamine deficiency

105

Most common cancer of the appendix

Carcinoid Tumor

106

Most common surgical emergency

Appendicitis

107

GI hamartomas, hyperpigmentation of the mouth and hands

Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

108

Multiple colon polyps, osteomas, soft tissue tumors

Gardner's Syndrome

109

Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness

McBurney's sign (Appendicitis)

110

Apple core lesion on barium enema

Colorectal Cancer

111

Most common site of colonic diverticula

Sigmoid colon

112

String sign on contrast X-ray

Crohn's Disease

113

Lead pipe appearance of colon on contrast x-ray

Ulcerative Colitis

114

Food poisoning due to exotoxin

Staph. aureus, Bacillus cereus

115

Osteomyelitis in Sickle Cell Disease

Salmonella

116

Diarrhea caused by Gram negative nonmotile organism that does not ferment lactose

Shigella

117

Diarrhea caused by an S-shaped organism

Campylobacter jejuni

118

Diarrhea transmitted by pet feces

Yersinia enterocolitica

119

Diarrhea caused by Gram negative motile organism that does not ferment lactose

Salmonella

120

Most common cause of "traveler's diarrhea"

ETEC

121

Diarrhea after a course of antibiotics

Clostridium difficile

122

Diarrhea caused by Gram negative lactose-fermenting bacteria, no fever

E. coli (esp. ETEC, EPEC)

123

Diarrhea caused by Gram negative comma-shaped organism, no fever

Vibrio cholerae (rice-water stools)

124

Diarrhea + recent ingestion of water from a stream

Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba histolytica

125

Food poisoning from undercooked hamburger meat

EHEC O157:H7

126

Ring-enhancing brain lesion in HIV patient

Toxoplasma gondii

127

Treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis

Metronidazole for pt. and partner

128

Most common protozoal diarrhea

Giardia lamblia

129

Most common helminth infection in the US

Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)

130

2nd most common helminth infection in the US

Ascaris lumbricoides

131

Sensitivity

People with disease + positive test/ Everyone with the disease = TP/ TP+FN

132

Specificity

(People without disease + negative test)/ (Everyone without the disease) = TN/ (TN+FP)

133

Positive Predictive Value

Probability that a positive test is correct = TP/ TP+FP. Increases with increased prevalence

134

Negative Predictive Value

Probability that a negative test is correct = TN/ TN + FN. Decreases with increased prevalence e.g. during flu season, if someone tests negative for the flu, you may not trust that negative test - it has a low predictive value.

135

Relative Risk

[A/(A+B)] / [C/(C+D)]

136

Odds Ratio

(A/B) / (C/D)

137

Attributable Risk

[A/(A+B)] - [C/(C+D)]

138

Attributable Risk Reduction

[C/(C+D)] - [A/(A+B)]

139

Number Needed to Treat (NNT)

1 / ARR

140

Chronic sinusitis, infertility, and situs inversus

Kartagener Syndrome (dynein arm defect

141

Elevated D-dimers

Pulmonary embolism, DVT, DIC

142

Hypercoagulability, Endothelial damage, & Stasis of blood

Virchow's Triad

143

Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis

Sarcoidosis

144

Vasculitits and glomerulonephritis

Wegener's Polyangitis

145

Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpasture's

146

Honeycomb lung on X-ray

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

147

Tennis-racket shaped cytoplasmic organelles

Birbeck granules (Langerhan's Histiocytosis

148

Most common bacteria implicated in exotoxin-mediated food poisonings

Staph. aureus, Bacillus cereus

149

Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules

Actinomyces israelii

150

Calcified granuloma in the lung, plus hilar lymphadenopathy

Ghon complex

151

Back pain, fever, night sweats, and weight loss

Pott's Disease (TB in the vertebrae)

152

Standard treatment regimen for TB

RIPE + B6 = Rifampin, Isoniazid (+ B6 to prevent neurotoxicity), Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol

153

Standard treatment for T. pallidum

Penicillin G (IV form) or Doxycycline if allergic

154

Cellulitis from a dog or cat bite

Pasteurella multocida

155

A non-painful indurated, ulcerated genital lesion

Primary chancre seen in Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)

156

Moist, smooth, flat white genital lesion

Condyloma lata, Secondary Syphilis

157

Large bull's eye rash

Erythema chronica migrans - presenting symptom of Lyme Disease from Borrelia burgdorferi

158

Diseases with Belle's Palsy as a Complication:

Lovely Belle Had An STD: Lyme, Herpes zoster, AIDS, Sarcoidosis, Tumors, Diabetes

159

Continuous machinery-like heart murmur

PDA

160

Boot-shaped heart

RVH due to Tetralogy of Fallot (in kid) or due to Pulm. HTN/COPD (in adult)

161

Rib notching

Coarctation of aorta

162

Most common congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

163

Most common congenital cause of early cyanosis

Tetralogy of Fallot

164

Bounding pulses, head bobbing, diastolic murmur

Aortic Regurgitation

165

Most common congenital heart murmur

Mitral Valve Prolapse

166

Chest pain, pericardial friction rub, persistent fever several weeks after MI

Dressler Syndrome

167

Splinter hemorrhages in nailbed

Infective Endocarditis

168

Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers

Roth's spots

169

Heart valve most commonly involved in bacterial endocarditis

Mitral Valve

170

Heart valve most commonly involved in an I.V. drug user with bacterial endocarditis

Tricuspid Valve

171

Granulomatous nodules in the heart

Aschoff bodies of Rheumatic Heart Disease

172

Most common cardiac tumor in adults

Metastases but Left Atrial Myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults

173

Most common primary cardiac tumor in children

Rhabdomyoma

174

Most common cause of constrictive pericarditis

Lupus in US, TB in developing countries

175

Weak pulses in upper extremities

Takayasu Arteritis

176

Necrotizing granulomas of lung and necrotizing glomerulonephritis

Granulomatosis with Polyangitis i.e. Wegener's

177

Necrotizing immune complex inflammation of visceral/renal vessels

Polyarteritis nodosa, which spares lungs

178

Young male smokers

Buerger Disease

179

Young Asian women

Takayasu Arteritis

180

Infants and young children; involved coronary arteries

Kawasaki disease

181

Most common vasculitis

Temporal (Giant Cell) Arteritis

182

Associated with hepatitis B infection

Polyarteritis nodosa (spares lungs)

183

Occlusion of ophthalmic artery can lead to blindness

Temporal (Giant Cell) Arteritis

184

Perforation of nasal septum

Granulomatosis with Polyangitis i.e. Wegener's

185

Unilateral headache, jaw claudication

Temporal (Giant Cell) Arteritis

186

Benign, raised, red lesion about the size of a mole in older patients

Cherry hemangioma

187

Raised, red area present at birth, increases in size initially then regresses over months to years

Strawberry hemangioma

188

Lesion caused by lymphoangiogenic growth factors in an infected HIV pt.

Kaposi Sarcoma

189

Polypoid red lesion found in pregnancy or after trauma

Pyogenic granuloma

190

Benign, painful, red-blue tumor under fingernails

Glomus tumor

191

Cavernous lymphangioma a/w Turner Syndrome

Cystic hygroma

192

Skin papule in AIDS pt. caused by Bartonella

Bacillary angiomatosis

193

Cold, painful digits

Raynaud's Phenomenon

194

c-ANCA

PR3 - Wegener's

195

p-ANCA

MPO - Microscopic Polyangitis & Churg-Strauss

196

Treatment for Buerger disease

Smoking cessation

197

Treatment for temporal arteritis

High-dose corticosteroids

198

Worst headache of my life

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

199

Lucid interval following head trauma

Epidural hematoma

200

Bloody CSF on Lumbar Puncture

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

201

Most common cause of subdural hematoma

Rupture of bridging veins

202

Most common cause of epidural hematoma

Rupture of middle meningeal artery, a branch of the maxillary artery, which is one of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery.

203

Toe extension upon stimulating the sole of the foot with a blunt instrument

Positive Babinski sign

204

Hyperreflexia, increased muscle tone, and positive Babinski sign

UMN Lesion

205

Hyporeflexia, decreased muscle tone, and muscle atrophy

LMN Lesion

206

Depigmentation of the substantia nigra

Parkinson's Disease

207

Chorea, dementia, and atrophy of the caudate and putamen

Huntington's Disease

208

Eosinophilic inclusions in the cytoplasm of neurons

Lewy bodies

209

Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, with nystagmus and diplopia during lateral gaze

Intranuclear Ophthalmoplegia i.e. MLF Syndrome

210

Degeneration of the dorsal columns

Tabes dorsalis

211

Demyelinating disease in a young woman

Multiple Sclerosis

212

Mixed upper and lower motor neuron disease

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

213

Newborn with arm paralysis following a difficult labor

Erb-Duchenne Palsy

214

Bone enlargement, bone pain, and arthritis

Paget Disease of Bone

215

Vertebral compression fractures

Osteoporosis

216

Most common cause of hypercalcemia

Primary Hyperparathyroidism

217

Most common cause of Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Parathyroid adenoma

218

Most common cause of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

Chronic renal failure (hypocalcemia)

219

Most common cause of Hypoparathyroidism

Parathyroidectomy

220

Facial muscle spasm when tapping on the cheek

Chvostek's sign, a sign of hypocalcemia

221

Parathyroid, pancreatic, and pituitary tumors

MEN 1 Syndrome

222

Positive Anterior Drawer Sign

ACL Injury

223

Swollen, red, acutely painful great toe joint

Gout

224

Swollen, hard, painful finger joints

Osteoarthritis

225

Swollen, boggy, painful finger joints

Rheumatoid Arthritis

226

Arthritis, dry mouth, dry eyes

Sjogren's Syndrome

227

Positively birefringent rhomboid-shaped crystals

Calcium pyrophosphate crystals seen in Pseudogout

228

Negatively birefringent needle-shaped crystals

Monosodium urate crystals seen in Gout

229

Cartilage erosion with polished bone underneath

Eburnation seen in Osteoarthritis

230

Bamboo spine on X-ray

Ankylosing Spondylitis

231

HLA-B27

Seronegative Arthritis = Psoriatic Arthritis, Ankylosing Spondylitis, IBD-associated arthritis, Reactive (Reiter's) Arthritis

232

Anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA antibodies

Lupus

233

Anti-histone antibodies

Drug-induced Lupus from SHIPP - Sulfonamides, Hydralazine, Isoniazid, Procainamide, Phenytoin

234

Anti-centromere antibodies

CREST Syndrome

235

Anti-topoisomerase antibodies (Anti-Scl70)

Systemic Scleroderma

236

Facial rash & Raynaud phenomenon in a young woman

SLE (Lupus)

237

Most common cause of death in SLE

Lupus Nephritis

238

Most common cardiac manifestation in SLE

Libman-Sacks endocarditis

239

Keratin pearls on skin biopsy

Squamous cell carcinoma

240

Most common malignant skin tumor

Basal cell carcinoma

241

Most common opportunistic infection in HIV infection

Pneumocystis jirovecii

242

Prophylaxis for Cryptococus in AIDS patients

Fluconazole

243

Prophylaxis for PCP in AIDS patients

TMP-SMX when CD4+ count <200

244

Treatment for Sporothrix schenckii

Potassium iodide, Itraconazole

245

Treatment for oral candidiasis

Nystatin, Fluconazole

246

Treatment for systemic candidiasis

Amphotericin B

247

Pupil that accommodates but does not react to light

Argyll-Robertson pupil in tertiary Syphilis

248

Most common medication for ADHD

Methylphenidate (Ritalin) or Dextroamphetamine (Adderall) --> increase presynaptic release of Norepinephrine

249

Most common medication for bulimia nervosa

Fluoxetine (SNRI)

250

Medical treatment for alcohol withdrawal

Benzodiazepines

251

Most effective treatment for alcohol abuse

Alcoholics Anonymous

252

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke encephalopathy

253

Treatment for absence seizures

Ethosuxamide

254

Treatment for Tonic-Clonic seizures

Phenytoin, Valproic acid, Carbamazepine

255

Treatment for central DI

Desmopressin

256

Treatment for nephrogenic DI

Hydrochlorothiazide, Indomethacin, Amiloride

257

Treatment for lithium-induced nephrogenic DI

Amiloride, a potassium-sparing diuretic that blocks the ENaC channel through which Lithium enters the principal cell

258

Nodular hyaline deposits in the glomeruli

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules in Diabetic Nephropathy

259

Glomerulonephritis plus pulmonary vasculitis

Granulomatosis with Polyangitis i.e. Wegener's or Goodpasture's Syndrome - Both cause Rapidly Progressive Crescentic Glomerulonephritis

260

Red cell casts

Glomerulonephritis

261

Waxy casts

Chronic Renal Failure

262

Thyroid-like appearance of kidney

Chronic Pyelonephritis

263

Most common renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

264

Most common type of renal stone

Calcium

265

Type of renal stone associated with Proteus vulgaris/mirabilis

Renal staghorn calculi - urease in bacteria causes ammonium magnesium phosphate stones/ struvite

266

Most common tumor of urinary tract

Transitional Cell Carcinoma

267

Most common renal malignancy of early childhood

Wilms Tumor

268

Fever + rash + hematuria + eosinophilia

Acute Interstitial Nephritis, drug-induced

269

Cancer associated with Schistosoma haematobium, where it's found, how to treat

Squamous cell carcinoma of bladder, found in Egypt, treat with Praziquantel (1 dose annually)

270

Most common medication used for UTI prophylaxis

TMP-SMX

271

Most common bacteria in pt. with struvite kidney stones

Proteus/Staph/Klebsiella

272

Dark purple nodules seen in an HIV pt.

Kaposi Sarcoma from HHV-8

273

Temporal lobe encephalitis

HSV-1 encephalitis

274

Owl's eye inclusions in monocytes

CMV

275

Intranuclear eosinophilic droplets

Cowdry A inclusions seen in HSV, VZV, and CMV

276

Aplastic anemia in a Sickle Cell pt.

Parvovirus B-19

277

Child with a fever and "slapped cheek" rash on the face that spreads to the body

Parvovirus B-19

278

Fever, runny nose, cough, conjunctivitis, and diffuse rash

Measles - Rubeola, a paramyxovirus

279

Small irregular blue-gray spots on the buccal mucosa, surrounded by a base of red

Koplik Spots seen in Rubeola Measles

280

Most common etiology of nosocomial pneumonia

Staphylcoccus, Klebsiella

281

Most common etiology of bacterial meningitis in neonates

GBS, E. coli, Listeria

282

Most common etiology of bacterial meningitis in children

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis

283

Most common etiology of bacterial meningitis in adults

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis

284

Osteomyelitis in IV drug user

Pseudomonas (more commonly it's Staph. aureus)

285

Osteomyelitis in Sickle Cell Disease

Salmonella

286

Most common reportable STD

Chlamydia

287

Non-painful indurated, ulcerated genital lesion

Syphilis chancre

288

Painful indurated, ulcerated genital lesion with exudate

Chancroid from Haemophilus ducreyi or possibly HSV-2

289

Stippled vaginal epithelial cells on a wet prep of vaginal discharge

Clue cells in Bacterial Vaginosis

290

Common treatment for syphilis

Penicillin G (IV form) or Doxycycline if allergic

291

Common treatment for Trichomonas

Metronidazole for pt. and partner

292

Common treatment for Chlamydia

Azithromycin

293

Common treatment for Gonorrhea

Ceftriaxone

294

Most common cancer in men

Prostate adenocarcinoma

295

Most common cause of urinary obstruction in men

BPH

296

Most common treatment for erectile dysfunction

Sildenafil

297

Dysplastic cervical cells, with enlarged, dark nuclei

Koilocytes, indicate HPV infection

298

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure in utero

Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of vagina

299

Most common tumor in women

Leiomyoma

300

Most common gynecologic malignancy in US

Endometrial carcinoma

301

Most common gynecologic malignancy worldwide

Cervical cancer

302

Chocolate cyst on the ovary

Endometriosis

303

Most common benign ovarian tumor

Serous cystadenoma

304

Most common malignant ovarian tumor

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

305

Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid

Call-Exner bodies in Granulosa cell tumor

306

Produces AFP

Yolk Sac tumor i.e. Endodermal sinus tumor

307

Estrogen-secreting, leading to precocious puberty

Granulosa-theca cell tumor

308

Intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous material

Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

309

Testosterone-secreting, leading to virilization

Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor

310

Psammoma bodies

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

311

Multiple different tissue types

Teratoma

312

Lined with fallopian tube-like epithelium

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

313

Ovarian tumor + ascites + hydrothorax

Meigs syndrome seen in Ovarian Fibroma

314

Call-Exner bodies

Granulosa-theca cell tumor

315

Resembles bladder epithelium

Brenner tumor

316

Elevated B-hCG

Choriocarcinoma, Dysgerminoma, and Hydatidiform mole

317

Increased AFP on amniocentesis

Neural tube defect, Anencephaly, Incorrect dating of pregnancy

318

Most common genetic cause of mental retardation

Down Syndrome

319

2nd most common genetic cause of mental retardation

Fragile X Syndrome

320

Horseshoe kidney, congenital heart defects, streak ovaries, and cystic hygroma

Turner Syndrome (XO)

321

Rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, micrognathia w/ prominent occiput & small jaw

Trisomy 18 - Edward Syndrome

322

Most common cancer in women in the US

Breast cancer

323

Most common benign breast tumor

Fibroadenoma

324

Most common malignant breast tumor

Infiltrative Ductal Adenocarcinoma

325

Blue dome cyst in the breast

Fibrocystic change

326

Treatment for ER+ breast cancer

Tamoxifen

327

Red, itchy, swollen rash on the areola and nipple

Paget Disease of Breast