First Aid 2014 Rapid Review full Flashcards Preview

Pathology > First Aid 2014 Rapid Review full > Flashcards

Flashcards in First Aid 2014 Rapid Review full Deck (439):
1

Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly. Disease/Dx?

Budd-Chiari syndrome (posthepatic venous thrombosis)

2

Achilles tendon xanthoma. Disease/Dx?

Familial hypercholesterolemia (dec LDL receptor signaling)

3

Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC. Disease/Dx?

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemia)

4

Anterior "drawer sign" (+). Disease/Dx?

Anterior cruciate ligament injury

5

Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints. Disease/Dx?

Marfan syndrome (fibrillin defect)

6

Athlete with polycythemia. Disease/Dx?

2° to erythropoietin injection

7

Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss. Disease/Dx?

Pott disease (vertebral TB)

8

Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis. Disease/Dx?

Sarcoidosis (noncaseating granulomas)

9

Blue sclera. Disease/Dx?

Osteogenesis imperfecta (type I collagen defect)

10

Bluish line on gingiva. Disease/Dx?

Burton line (lead poisoning)

11

Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis. Disease/Dx?

Paget disease of bone (inc osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity)

12

Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing. Disease/Dx?

Aortic regurgitation

13

Butterfly facial rash and Raynaud phenomenon in a young female. Disease/Dx?

Systemic lupus erythematosus

14

Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma). Disease/Dx?

Neurofibromatosis type I (+ pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas)

15

Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, multiple endocrine abnormalities. Disease/Dx?

McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation)

16

Calf pseudohypertrophy. Disease/Dx?

Muscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne): X-linked recessive deletion of dystrophin gene

17

Cherry-red spots on macula. Disease/Dx?

Tay-Sachs (ganglioside accumulation) or Niemann-Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation), central retinal artery occlusion

18

Chest pain on exertion. Disease/Dx?

Angina (stable: with moderate exertion; unstable: with minimal exertion)

19

Chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI. Disease/Dx?

Dressler syndrome (autoimmune-mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis, 1-12 weeks after acute episode)

20

Child uses arms to stand up from squat. Disease/Dx?

Gowers sign (Duchenne muscular dystrophy)

21

Child with fever later develops red rash on face that spreads to body. Disease/Dx?

Slapped cheeks (erythema infectiosum/fifth disease: parvovirus B19)

22

Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration. Disease/Dx?

Huntington disease (autosomal dominant CAG repeat expansion)

23

Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps, myoglobinuria. Disease/Dx?

McArdle disease (muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency)

24

Cold intolerance. Disease/Dx?

Hypothyroidism

25

Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia. Disease/Dx?

Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; bilateral [multiple sclerosis], unilateral [stroke])

26

Continuous "machine-like" heart murmur. Disease/Dx?

PDA (close with indomethacin; open or maintain with misoprostol)

27

Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition. Disease/Dx?

Myxedema (caused by hypothyroidism, Graves disease [pretibial])

28

Dark purple skin/mouth nodules in a patient with AIDS. Disease/Dx?

Kaposi sarcoma, associated with HHV-8

29

Deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation. Disease/Dx?

Kussmaul respirations (diabetic ketoacidosis)

30

Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea. Disease/Dx?

Pellagra (niacin [vitamin B3] deficiency)

31

Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, alcoholism or malnutrition. Disease/Dx?

Wet beriberi (thiamine [vitamin B1] deficiency)

32

Dog or cat bite resulting in infection. Disease/Dx?

Pasteurella multocida (cellulitis at inoculation site)

33

Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis. Disease/Dx?

Sjögren syndrome (autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands)

34

Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia. Disease/Dx?

Plummer-Vinson syndrome (may progress to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma)

35

Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints. Disease/Dx?

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (type III collagen defect)

36

Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node. Disease/Dx?

Virchow node (abdominal metastasis)

37

Erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells. Disease/Dx?

Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) or Sézary syndrome (mycosis fungoides + malignant T cells in blood)

38

Facial muscle spasm upon tapping. Disease/Dx?

Chvostek sign (hypocalcemia)

39

Fat, female, forty, and fertile. Disease/Dx?

Cholelithiasis (gallstones)

40

Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis. Disease/Dx?

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)

41

Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash. Disease/Dx?

Measles

42

Fever, night sweats, weight loss. Disease/Dx?

B symptoms (staging) of lymphoma

43

Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis. Disease/Dx?

Peyronie disease (connective tissue disorder)

44

Gout, intellectual disability, self-mutilating behavior in a boy. Disease/Dx?

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, X-linked recessive)

45

Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea. Disease/Dx?

Kayser-Fleischer rings (copper accumulation from Wilson disease)

46

Hamartomatous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth/feet/hands. Disease/Dx?

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (inherited, benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction; inc cancer risk, mainly GI)

47

Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms. Disease/Dx?

Gaucher disease (glucocerebrosidase deficiency)

48

Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts. Disease/Dx?

Alport syndrome (mutation in collagen IV)

49

Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility. Disease/Dx?

Klüver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala lesion)

50

Hyperreflexia, hypertonia, Babinski sign present. Disease/Dx?

UMN damage

51

Hyporeflexia, hypotonia, atrophy, fasciculations. Disease/Dx?

LMN damage

52

Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia. Disease/Dx?

Blue bloater (chronic bronchitis: hyperplasia of mucous cells)

53

Indurated, ulcerated genital lesion. Disease/Dx?

Nonpainful: chancre (1° syphilis, Treponema pallidum) Painful, with exudate: chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

54

Infant with cleft lip/palate, microcephaly or holoprosencephaly, polydactyly, cutis aplasia. Disease/Dx?

Patau syndrome (trisomy 13)

55

Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, and neurodegeneration. Disease/Dx?

Niemann-Pick disease (genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)

56

Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly. Disease/Dx?

Cori disease (debranching enzyme deficiency) or Von Gierke disease (glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency, more severe)

57

Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect. Disease/Dx?

Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18)

58

Jaundice, palpable distended non-tender gallbladder. Disease/Dx?

Courvoisier sign (distal obstruction of biliary tree)

59

Large rash with bull's-eye appearance. Disease/Dx?

Erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite (Lyme disease: Borrelia)

60

Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury. Disease/Dx?

Epidural hematoma (middle meningeal artery rupture)

61

Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells. Disease/Dx?

Bruton disease (X-linked agammaglobulinemia)

62

Mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time. Disease/Dx?

Glanzmann thrombasthenia (defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa)

63

Muffled heart sounds, distended neck veins, hypotension. Disease/Dx?

Beck triad of cardiac tamponade

64

Multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/ supernumerary teeth. Disease/Dx?

Gardner syndrome (subtype of FAP)

65

Myopathy (infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), exercise intolerance. Disease/Dx?

Pompe disease (lysosomal α-1,4-glucosidase deficiency)

66

Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth. Disease/Dx?

Erb-Duchenne palsy (superior trunk [C5-C6] brachial plexus injury: "waiter's tip")

67

No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance. Disease/Dx?

Sheehan syndrome (pituitary infarction)

68

Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Disease/Dx?

Multiple sclerosis

69

Oscillating slow/fast breathing. Disease/Dx?

Cheyne-Stokes respirations (central apnea in CHF or inc intracranial pressure)

70

Painful blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemia. Disease/Dx?

Cold agglutinin disease (autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis)

71

Painful, pale, cold fingers/toes. Disease/Dx?

Raynaud phenomenon (vasospasm in extremities)

72

Painful, raised red lesions on pad of fingers/toes. Disease/Dx?

Osler nodes (infective endocarditis, immune complex deposition)

73

Painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles. Disease/Dx?

Janeway lesions (infective endocarditis, septic emboli/ microabscesses)

74

Painless jaundice. Disease/Dx?

Cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct

75

Palpable purpura on buttocks/legs, joint pain, abdominal pain (child), hematuria. Disease/Dx?

Henoch-Schönlein purpura (IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kidneys)

76

Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors. Disease/Dx?

MEN 1 (autosomal dominant)

77

Periorbital and/or peripheral edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia. Disease/Dx?

Nephrotic syndrome

78

Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation. Disease/Dx?

Pink puffer (emphysema: centriacinar [smoking], panacinar [α1-antitrypsin deficiency])

79

Polyuria, renal tubular acidosis type II, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances, hypophosphatemic rickets. Disease/Dx?

Fanconi syndrome (proximal tubular reabsorption defect)

80

Pruritic, purple, polygonal planar papules and plaques (6 P's). Disease/Dx?

Lichen planus

81

Pupil accommodates but doesn't react. Disease/Dx?

Argyll Robertson pupil (neurosyphilis)

82

Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends following GI/upper respiratory infection. Disease/Dx?

Guillain-Barré syndrome (acute autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy)

83

Rash on palms and soles. Disease/Dx?

Coxsackie A, 2° syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever

84

Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE. Disease/Dx?

Hyper-IgE syndrome (Job syndrome: neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality)

85

Red "currant jelly" sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients. Disease/Dx?

Klebsiella pneumoniae

86

Red "currant jelly" stools. Disease/Dx?

Acute mesenteric ischemia (adults), intussusception (infants)

87

Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola. Disease/Dx?

Paget disease of the breast (sign of underlying neoplasm)

88

Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs. Disease/Dx?

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

89

Renal cell carcinoma (bilateral), hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma. Disease/Dx?

von Hippel-Lindau disease (dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)

90

Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability. Disease/Dx?

Parkinson disease (nigrostriatal dopamine depletion)

91

Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers. Disease/Dx?

Roth spots (bacterial endocarditis)

92

Severe jaundice in neonate. Disease/Dx?

Crigler-Najjar syndrome (congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

93

Severe RLQ pain with palpation of LLQ. Disease/Dx?

Rovsing sign (acute appendicitis)

94

Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness. Disease/Dx?

McBurney sign (acute appendicitis)

95

Short stature, inc incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia. Disease/Dx?

Fanconi anemia (genetic loss of DNA crosslink repair; often progresses to AML)

96

Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, infertility. Disease/Dx?

Kartagener syndrome (dynein arm defect affecting cilia)

97

Skin hyperpigmentation, hypotension, fatigue. Disease/Dx?

Addison disease (1° adrenocortical insufficiency causes inc ACTH and inc α-MSH production)

98

Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys. Disease/Dx?

Becker muscular dystrophy (X-linked missense mutation in dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne)

99

Small, irregular red spots on buccal/lingual mucosa with blue-white center. Disease/Dx?

Koplik spots (measles; rubeola virus)

100

Smooth, flat, moist, painless white lesions on genitals. Disease/Dx?

Condylomata lata (2° syphilis)

101

Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails. Disease/Dx?

Bacterial endocarditis

102

Strawberry tongue. Disease/Dx?

Scarlet fever, Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome

103

Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney, cystic hygroma at birth, short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema. Disease/Dx?

Turner syndrome (45,XO)

104

Sudden swollen/painful big toe joint, tophi. Disease/Dx?

Gout/podagra (hyperuricemia)

105

Swollen gums, mucosal bleeding, poor wound healing, petechiae. Disease/Dx?

Scurvy (vitamin C deficiency: can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis)

106

Swollen, hard, painful finger joints. Disease/Dx?

Osteoarthritis (osteophytes on PIP [Bouchard nodes], DIP [Heberden nodes])

107

Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo). Disease/Dx?

Aortic valve stenosis

108

Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma. Disease/Dx?

MEN 2A (autosomal dominant ret mutation)

109

Thyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuromatosis. Disease/Dx?

MEN 2B (autosomal dominant ret mutation)

110

Toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape. Disease/Dx?

Babinski sign (UMN lesion)

111

Unilateral facial drooping involving forehead. Disease/Dx?

Facial nerve (LMN CN VII palsy)

112

Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male. Disease/Dx?

Reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27

113

Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain). Disease/Dx?

Hemangioma (benign, but associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome)

114

Vomiting blood following gastroesophageal lacerations. Disease/Dx?

Mallory-Weiss syndrome (alcoholic and bulimic patients)

115

Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy. Disease/Dx?

Whipple disease (Tropheryma whipplei)

116

Worst headache of my life. Disease/Dx?

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

117

Labs: Anticentromere antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Scleroderma (CREST)

118

Labs: Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)

119

Labs: Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Goodpasture syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)

120

Labs: Antihistone antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Drug-induced SLE (hydralazine, INH, phenytoin, procainamide)

121

Labs: Anti-IgG antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonnière deformity)

122

Labs: Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs). Disease/Dx?

1° biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)

123

Labs: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). Disease/Dx?

Microscopic polyangiitis and Churg-Strauss syndrome (MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA); granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA)

124

Labs: Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA). Disease/Dx?

SLE (type III hypersensitivity)

125

Labs: Antiplatelet antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

126

Labs: Anti-topoisomerase antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

127

Labs: Anti-transglutaminase/anti-gliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)

128

Labs: "Apple core" lesion on abdominal x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Colorectal cancer (usually left-sided)

129

Labs: Azurophilic peroxidase, + granular inclusions in granulocytes and myeloblasts. Disease/Dx?

Auer rods (AML, especially the promyelocytic [M3] type)

130

Labs: Bacitracin response. Disease/Dx?

Sensitive: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A); resistant: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)

131

Labs: "Bamboo spine" on x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)

132

Labs: Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs. Disease/Dx?

Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)

133

Labs: Basophilic stippling of RBCs. Disease/Dx?

Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia

134

Labs: Bloody tap on LP. Disease/Dx?

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

135

Labs: "Boot-shaped" heart on x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH

136

Labs: Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules. Disease/Dx?

Actinomyces israelii

137

Labs: Bronchogenic apical lung tumor on imaging. Disease/Dx?

Pancoast tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner syndrome)

138

Labs: "Brown" tumor of bone. Disease/Dx?

Hyperparathyroidism or osteitis fibrosa cystica (deposited hemosiderin from hemorrhage gives brown color)

139

Labs: Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy. Disease/Dx?

Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)

140

Labs: Cellular crescents in Bowman capsule. Disease/Dx?

Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis

141

Labs: "Chocolate cyst" of ovary. Disease/Dx?

Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)

142

Labs: Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale. Disease/Dx?

Homer-Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, neurofibrils retinoblastoma)

143

Labs: Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs. Disease/Dx?

Cystic fibrosis (autosomal recessive mutation in CFTR gene --> fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)

144

Labs: Decreased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum. Disease/Dx?

Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormality

145

Labs: Degeneration of dorsal column nerves. Disease/Dx?

Tabes dorsalis (3° syphilis), subacute combined degeneration (dorsal columns and lateral corticospinal tracts affected)

146

Labs: Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra. Disease/Dx?

Parkinson disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)

147

Labs: Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum. Disease/Dx?

Curschmann spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)

148

Labs: Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid. Disease/Dx?

Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)

149

Labs: Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement. Disease/Dx?

Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer) and hyperchromasia

150

Labs: Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies. Disease/Dx?

Owl eye appearance of CMV

151

Labs: Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei. Disease/Dx?

Orphan Annie eyes nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)

152

Labs: Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell. Disease/Dx?

Mallory body (alcoholic liver disease)

153

Labs: Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell. Disease/Dx?

Lewy body (Parkinson disease)

154

Labs: Eosinophilic globule in liver. Disease/Dx?

Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)

155

Labs: Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal and cerebellar nerve cells. Disease/Dx?

Negri bodies of rabies

156

Labs: Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain. Disease/Dx?

Senile plaques (Alzheimer disease)

157

Labs: Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eye"). Disease/Dx?

Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin lymphoma)

158

Labs: Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells. Disease/Dx?

Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)

159

Labs: "Hair on end" (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray. Disease/Dx?

β-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)

160

Labs: hCG elevated. Disease/Dx?

Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo, and multiple pregnancy)

161

Labs: Heart nodules (granulomatous). Disease/Dx?

Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)

162

Labs: Heterophile antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

163

Labs: Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions. Disease/Dx?

Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)

164

Labs: High level of D-dimers. Disease/Dx?

DVT, PE, DIC

165

Labs: Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify). Disease/Dx?

Ghon complex (1° TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)

166

Labs: "Honeycomb lung" on x-ray or CT. Disease/Dx?

Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis

167

Labs: Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis). Disease/Dx?

Trousseau syndrome (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung)

168

Labs: Hypersegmented neutrophils. Disease/Dx?

Megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency: neurologic symptoms; folate deficiency: no neurologic symptoms)

169

Labs: Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis. Disease/Dx?

Conn syndrome

170

Labs: Hypochromic, microcytic anemia. Disease/Dx?

Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (fetal hemoglobin sometimes present)

171

Labs: Increased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum. Disease/Dx?

Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)

172

Labs: Increased uric acid levels. Disease/Dx?

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics

173

Labs: Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies. Disease/Dx?

Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or CMV)

174

Labs: Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum. Disease/Dx?

Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: inc chance of mesothelioma)

175

Labs: Keratin pearls on a skin biopsy. Disease/Dx?

Squamous cell carcinoma

176

Labs: Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency. Disease/Dx?

Chédiak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)

177

Labs: "Lead pipe" appearance of colon on barium enema x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)

178

Labs: Linear appearance of IgG deposition on glomerular basement. Disease/Dx?

Goodpasture syndrome membrane

179

Labs: Low serum ceruloplasmin. Disease/Dx?

Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)

180

Labs: "Lumpy bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence. Disease/Dx?

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)

181

Labs: Lytic ("hole punched") bone lesions on x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Multiple myeloma

182

Labs: Mammary gland ("blue domed") cyst. Disease/Dx?

Fibrocystic change of the breast

183

Labs: Monoclonal antibody spike. Disease/Dx?

* Multiple myeloma (usually IgG or IgA)

184

Labs: Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus. Disease/Dx?

Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)

185

Labs: Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium x-ray. Disease/Dx?

String sign (Crohn disease)

186

Labs: Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis. Disease/Dx?

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA) and Goodpasture syndrome (anti-basement membrane antibodies)

187

Labs: Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals. Disease/Dx?

Gout (monosodium urate crystals)

188

Labs: Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli. Disease/Dx?

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)

189

Labs: Novobiocin response. Disease/Dx?

Sensitive: Staphylococcus epidermidis; resistant: Staphylococcus saprophyticus

190

Labs: "Nutmeg" appearance of liver. Disease/Dx?

Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure

191

Labs: "Onion skin" periosteal reaction. Disease/Dx?

Ewing sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)

192

Labs: Optochin response. Disease/Dx?

Sensitive: Streptococcus pneumoniae; resistant: viridans streptococci

193

Labs: Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area. Disease/Dx?

Codman triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)

194

Labs: Podocyte fusion or "effacement" on electron microscopy. Disease/Dx?

Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)

195

Labs: Polished, "ivory-like" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion. Disease/Dx?

Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)

196

Labs: Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. Disease/Dx?

Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer disease) and Pick bodies (Pick disease)

197

Labs: Psammoma bodies. Disease/Dx?

Meningiomas, papillary thyroid carcinoma, mesothelioma, papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium and ovary

198

Labs: Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy. Disease/Dx?

Glioblastoma multiforme

199

Labs: RBC casts in urine. Disease/Dx?

Acute glomerulonephritis

200

Labs: Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells. Disease/Dx?

Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)

201

Labs: Renal epithelial casts in urine. Disease/Dx?

Acute toxic/viral renal injury

202

Labs: Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent. Disease/Dx?

Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals)

203

Labs: Ring-enhancing brain lesion in AIDS. Disease/Dx?

Toxoplasma gondii, CNS lymphoma

204

Labs: Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body-laden macrophages ("starry sky" histology). Disease/Dx?

Burkitt lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV; "black sky" made up of malignant cells)

205

Labs: Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons. Disease/Dx?

Pick bodies (Pick disease: progressive dementia, changes in personality)

206

Labs: "Soap bubble" in femur or tibia on x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)

207

Labs: "Spikes" on basement membrane, "dome-like" subepithelial deposits. Disease/Dx?

Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome)

208

Labs: Stacks of RBCs. Disease/Dx?

Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)

209

Labs: Stippled vaginal epithelial cells. Disease/Dx?

Clue cells (Gardnerella vaginalis)

210

Labs: "Tennis racket"-shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells. Disease/Dx?

Birbeck granules (Langerhans cell histiocytosis or histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)

211

Labs: Thrombi made of white/red layers. Disease/Dx?

Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)

212

Labs: "Thumb sign" on lateral x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)

213

Labs: Thyroid-like appearance of kidney. Disease/Dx?

Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis

214

Labs: "Tram-track" appearance of capillary loops of glomerular basement membranes on light microscopy. Disease/Dx?

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

215

Labs: Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles. Disease/Dx?

Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)

216

Labs: "Waxy" casts with very low urine flow. Disease/Dx?

Chronic end-stage renal disease

217

Labs: WBC casts in urine. Disease/Dx?

Acute pyelonephritis

218

Labs: WBCs that look "smudged". Disease/Dx?

CLL (almost always B cell)

219

Labs: "Wire loop" glomerular capillary appearance on light microscopy. Disease/Dx?

Lupus nephropathy

220

Labs: Yellowish CSF. Disease/Dx?

Xanthochromia (e.g., due to subarachnoid hemorrhage)

221

Condition: Absence seizures. Tx?

Ethosuximide

222

Condition: Acute gout attack. Tx?

NSAIDs, colchicine

223

Condition: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3). Tx?

All-trans retinoic acid

224

Condition: ADHD. Tx?

Methylphenidate, amphetamines

225

Condition: Alcohol use disorder. Tx?

AA + disulfiram, naltrexone, or acamprosate for patient. Al-Anon for patient's family

226

Condition: Alcohol withdrawal. Tx?

Benzodiazepines

227

Condition: Anorexia. Tx?

Nutrition, psychotherapy

228

Condition: Anticoagulation during pregnancy. Tx?

Heparin

229

Condition: Arrhythmia in damaged cardiac tissue. Tx?

Class IB antiarrhythmic (lidocaine, mexiletine, tocainide)

230

Condition: Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tx?

Tamsulosin, finasteride

231

Condition: Bipolar disorder. Tx?

Lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine (mood stabilizers)

232

Condition: Breast cancer in postmenopausal woman. Tx?

Aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole)

233

Condition: Buerger disease. Tx?

Smoking cessation

234

Condition: Bulimia nervosa. Tx?

SSRIs

235

Condition: Candida albicans. Tx?

Amphotericin B (systemic), nystatin (oral thrush), azoles (vaginitis)

236

Condition: Carcinoid syndrome. Tx?

Octreotide

237

Condition: Chlamydia trachomatis. Tx?

Doxycycline (+ ceftriaxone for gonorrhea coinfection), erythromycin eye drops (prophylaxis in infants)

238

Condition: Chronic gout. Tx?

Probenecid (underexcretor), allopurinol (overproducer), febuxostat

239

Condition: Chronic hepatitis. Tx?

IFN-α

240

Condition: Chronic myelogenous leukemia. Tx?

Imatinib

241

Condition: Clostridium botulinum. Tx?

Antitoxin

242

Condition: Clostridium difficile. Tx?

Oral metronidazole; if refractory, oral vancomycin

243

Condition: Clostridium tetani. Tx?

Antitoxin + vaccine booster + diazepam

244

Condition: CMV. Tx?

Ganciclovir

245

Condition: Crohn disease. Tx?

Corticosteroids, infliximab, methotrexate, azathioprine

246

Condition: Cryptococcus neoformans. Tx?

Fluconazole (prophylaxis in AIDS patients)

247

Condition: Cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Tx?

Mesna

248

Condition: Depression. Tx?

SSRIs (first-line)

249

Condition: Diabetes insipidus. Tx?

DDAVP (central); hydrochlorothiazide, indomethacin, amiloride (nephrogenic)

250

Condition: Diabetes mellitus type 1. Tx?

Dietary intervention (low sugar) + insulin replacement

251

Condition: Diabetes mellitus type 2. Tx?

Dietary intervention, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin (if refractory)

252

Condition: Diabetic ketoacidosis. Tx?

Fluids, insulin, K+

253

Condition: Enterococci. Tx?

Vancomycin/ampicillin + aminoglycoside

254

Condition: Erectile dysfunction. Tx?

Sildenafil, vardenafil

255

Condition: ER+ breast cancer. Tx?

Tamoxifen

256

Condition: Ethylene glycol/methanol intoxication. Tx?

Fomepizole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor)

257

Condition: Haemophilus influenzae (B). Tx?

Rifampin (prophylaxis)

258

Condition: Generalized anxiety disorder. Tx?

Buspirone

259

Condition: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener). Tx?

Cyclophosphamide, corticosteroids

260

Condition: Heparin toxicity (acute). Tx?

Protamine sulfate

261

Condition: HER2/neu+ breast cancer. Tx?

Trastuzumab

262

Condition: Hyperaldosteronism. Tx?

Spironolactone

263

Condition: Hypercholesterolemia. Tx?

Statin (first-line)

264

Condition: Hypertriglyceridemia. Tx?

Fibrate

265

Condition: Immediate anticoagulation. Tx?

Heparin

266

Condition: Infertility. Tx?

Leuprolide, GnRH (pulsatile), clomiphene

267

Condition: Influenza. Tx?

Rimantadine, oseltamivir

268

Condition: Legionella pneumophila. Tx?

Erythromycin

269

Condition: Long-term anticoagulation. Tx?

Warfarin

270

Condition: Malaria. Tx?

Chloroquine/mefloquine (for blood schizont), primaquine (for liver hypnozoite)

271

Condition: Malignant hyperthermia. Tx?

Dantrolene

272

Condition: Medical abortion. Tx?

Mifepristone

273

Condition: Migraine. Tx?

Sumatriptan

274

Condition: MRSA. Tx?

Vancomycin

275

Condition: Multiple sclerosis. Tx?

β-interferon, immunosuppression, natalizumab

276

Condition: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tx?

RIPE (rifampin, INH, pyrazinamide, ethambutol)

277

Condition: Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Tx?

Ceftriaxone (add doxycycline to cover likely concurrent Chlamydia)

278

Condition: Neisseria meningitidis. Tx?

Penicillin/ceftriaxone, rifampin (prophylaxis)

279

Condition: Osteomalacia/rickets. Tx?

Vitamin D supplementation

280

Condition: Osteoporosis. Tx?

Bisphosphonates; calcium and vitamin D supplementation

281

Condition: Patent ductus arteriosus. Tx?

Indomethacin

282

Condition: Pheochromocytoma. Tx?

α-antagonists (e.g., phenoxybenzamine)

283

Condition: Pneumocystis jirovecii. Tx?

TMP-SMX (prophylaxis in AIDS patient)

284

Condition: Prolactinoma. Tx?

Bromocriptine (dopamine agonists)

285

Condition: Prostate cancer/uterine fibroids. Tx?

Leuprolide, GnRH (continuous)

286

Condition: Prostate carcinoma. Tx?

Flutamide

287

Condition: Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tx?

Antipseudomonal penicillin + aminoglycoside

288

Condition: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (idiopathic). Tx?

Sildenafil, bosentan, epoprostenol

289

Condition: Rickettsia rickettsii. Tx?

Doxycycline, chloramphenicol (associated with aplastic anemia)

290

Condition: Ringworm infections. Tx?

Terbinafine, griseofulvin, imidazole

291

Condition: Schizophrenia (negative symptoms). Tx?

5-HT2A antagonists (e.g., 2nd-generation antipsychotics)

292

Condition: Schizophrenia (positive symptoms). Tx?

D2 receptor antagonists (e.g., 1st- and 2nd-generation antipsychotics)

293

Condition: SIADH. Tx?

Demeclocycline, lithium, vasopressin receptor antagonists

294

Condition: Sickle cell anemia. Tx?

Hydroxyurea (inc fetal hemoglobin)

295

Condition: Sporothrix schenckii. Tx?

Oral potassium iodide

296

Condition: Stable angina. Tx?

Sublingual nitroglycerin

297

Condition: Staphylococcus aureus. Tx?

MSSA: nafcillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin (antistaphylococcal penicillins); MRSA: vancomycin

298

Condition: Streptococcus bovis. Tx?

Penicillin prophylaxis; evaluation for colon cancer if linked to endocarditis

299

Condition: Streptococcus pneumoniae. Tx?

Penicillin/cephalosporin (systemic infection, pneumonia), vancomycin (meningitis)

300

Condition: Streptococcus pyogenes. Tx?

Penicillin prophylaxis

301

Condition: Temporal arteritis. Tx?

High-dose steroids

302

Condition: Tonic-clonic seizures. Tx?

Phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine

303

Condition: Toxoplasma gondii. Tx?

Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

304

Condition: Treponema pallidum. Tx?

Penicillin

305

Condition: Trichomonas vaginalis. Tx?

Metronidazole (patient and partner)

306

Condition: Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux). Tx?

Carbamazepine

307

Condition: Ulcerative colitis. Tx?

5-ASA, infliximab, colectomy

308

Condition: UTI prophylaxis. Tx?

TMP-SMX

309

Condition: Warfarin toxicity. Tx?

Fresh frozen plasma (acute), vitamin K (chronic)

310

Actinic (solar) keratosis. Association?

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

311

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury. Association?

Cushing ulcer (inc intracranial pressure stimulates vagal gastric secretion)

312

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns. Association?

Curling ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)

313

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon. Association?

Skip lesions (Crohn disease)

314

Aneurysm, dissecting. Association?

Hypertension

315

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta. Association?

Atherosclerosis

316

Aortic aneurysm, arch. Association?

3° syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction

317

Aortic aneurysm, ascending. Association?

Marfan syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

318

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies. Association?

Wernicke encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)

319

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage). Association?

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin S)

320

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer. Association?

H. pylori

321

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly). Association?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

322

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids). Association?

Group B streptococcus/E.coli (newborns), S. pneumoniae/ Neisseria meningitidis (kids)

323

Benign melanocytic nevus. Association?

Spitz nevus (most common in 1st two decades)

324

Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency. Association?

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor)

325

Brain tumor (adults). Association?

Supratentorial: metastasis > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma

326

Brain tumor (kids). Association?

Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma

327

Breast cancer. Association?

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma

328

Breast mass. Association?

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)

329

Breast tumor (benign). Association?

Fibroadenoma

330

Cardiac 1° tumor (kids). Association?

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

331

Cardiac manifestation of lupus. Association?

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

332

Cardiac tumor (adults). Association?

Metastasis, 1° myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")

333

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation. Association?

Chiari II malformation

334

Chronic arrhythmia. Association?

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

335

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune). Association?

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

336

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina. Association?

DES exposure in utero

337

Compression fracture. Association?

Osteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman)

338

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension. Association?

21-hydroxylase deficiency

339

Congenital cardiac anomaly. Association?

VSD

340

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver). Association?

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

341

Constrictive pericarditis. Association?

TB (developing world); SLE (developed world)

342

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis. Association?

LAD > RCA > LCA

343

Cretinism. Association?

Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism

344

Cushing syndrome. Association?

* Iatrogenic Cushing (from corticosteroid therapy)

345

Cyanosis (early; less common). Association?

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

346

Cyanosis (late; more common). Association?

VSD, ASD, PDA

347

Death in CML. Association?

Blast crisis

348

Death in SLE. Association?

Lupus nephropathy

349

Dementia. Association?

Alzheimer disease, multiple infarcts

350

Demyelinating disease in young women. Association?

Multiple sclerosis

351

DIC. Association?

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery

352

Dietary deficit. Association?

Iron

353

Diverticulum in pharynx. Association?

Zenker diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

354

Ejection click. Association?

Aortic/pulmonic stenosis

355

Esophageal cancer. Association?

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (U.S.)

356

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated). Association?

S. aureus, B. cereus

357

Glomerulonephritis (adults). Association?

Berger disease (IgA nephropathy)

358

Gynecologic malignancy. Association?

Endometrial carcinoma (most common in U.S.); cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)

359

Heart murmur, congenital. Association?

Mitral valve prolapse

360

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis. Association?

Mitral > aortic (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse)

361

Helminth infection (U.S.). Association?

Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides

362

Hematoma—epidural. Association?

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

363

Hematoma—subdural. Association?

Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)

364

Hemochromatosis. Association?

Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes," and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)

365

Hepatocellular carcinoma. Association?

Cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C and with alcoholism)

366

Hereditary bleeding disorder. Association?

von Willebrand disease

367

Hereditary harmless jaundice. Association?

Gilbert syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

368

HLA-B27. Association?

Ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, ulcerative colitis, psoriatic arthritis

369

HLA-DR3 or -DR4. Association?

Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE

370

Holosystolic murmur. Association?

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

371

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis. Association?

Virchow triad (results in venous thrombosis)

372

Hypertension, 2°. Association?

Renal disease

373

Hypoparathyroidism. Association?

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

374

Hypopituitarism. Association?

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

375

Infection 2° to blood transfusion. Association?

Hepatitis C

376

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease. Association?

Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase+)

377

Intellectual disability. Association?

Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome

378

Kidney stones. Association?

Calcium = radiopaque

379

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left). Association?

Eisenmenger syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)

380

Liver disease. Association?

Alcoholic cirrhosis

381

Lysosomal storage disease. Association?

Gaucher disease

382

Male cancer. Association?

Prostatic carcinoma

383

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever. Association?

Hodgkin lymphoma

384

Malignancy (kids). Association?

ALL, medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

385

Metastases to bone. Association?

Prostate, breast > lung > thyroid

386

Metastases to brain. Association?

Lung > breast > genitourinary > melanoma > GI

387

Metastases to liver. Association?

Colon >> stomach, pancreas

388

Mitochondrial inheritance. Association?

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

389

Mitral valve stenosis. Association?

Rheumatic heart disease

390

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease. Association?

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

391

Myocarditis. Association?

Coxsackie B

392

Nephrotic syndrome (adults). Association?

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

393

Nephrotic syndrome (kids). Association?

Minimal change disease

394

Neuron migration failure. Association?

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia)

395

Nosocomial pneumonia. Association?

Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

396

Obstruction of male urinary tract. Association?

BPH

397

Opportunistic infection in AIDS. Association?

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

398

Osteomyelitis. Association?

S. aureus

399

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease. Association?

Salmonella

400

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use. Association?

Pseudomonas, S. aureus

401

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer. Association?

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)

402

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral). Association?

Serous cystadenoma

403

Ovarian tumor (malignant). Association?

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

404

Pancreatitis (acute). Association?

Gallstones, alcohol

405

Pancreatitis (chronic). Association?

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

406

Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML (ages). Association?

ALL: child, CLL: adult > 60, AML: adult ~65, CML: adult 30-60

407

Pelvic inflammatory disease. Association?

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae

408

Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl). Association?

CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)

409

Pituitary tumor. Association?

Prolactinoma, somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma

410

1° amenorrhea. Association?

Turner syndrome (45,XO)

411

1° bone tumor (adults). Association?

Multiple myeloma

412

1° hyperaldosteronism. Association?

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

413

1° hyperparathyroidism. Association?

Adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma

414

1° liver cancer. Association?

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α1-antitrypsin deficiency)

415

Pulmonary hypertension. Association?

COPD

416

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels. Association?

Buerger disease (strongly associated with tobacco) in extremities

417

Renal tumor. Association?

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

418

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause. Association?

Cor pulmonale

419

S3 (protodiastolic gallop). Association?

inc ventricular filling (left-to-right shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])

420

S4 (presystolic gallop). Association?

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

421

2° hyperparathyroidism. Association?

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

422

Sexually transmitted disease. Association?

Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)

423

SIADH. Association?

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

424

Site of diverticula. Association?

Sigmoid colon

425

Sites of atherosclerosis. Association?

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery

426

Stomach cancer. Association?

Adenocarcinoma

427

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels. Association?

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)

428

Temporal arteritis. Association?

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

429

Testicular tumor. Association?

Seminoma (malignant, radiosensitive)

430

Thyroid cancer. Association?

Papillary carcinoma

431

Tumor in women. Association?

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

432

Tumor of infancy. Association?

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

433

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults). Association?

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

434

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids). Association?

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

435

Type of Hodgkin. Association?

Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

436

Type of non-Hodgkin. Association?

Diffuse large cell

437

UTI. Association?

E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)

438

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe. Association?

HSV-1

439

Vitamin deficiency (U.S.). Association?

Folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects)