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Flashcards in Toxicology Deck (11):
1

What are the organs targeted by Carbon monoxide? 2
What are the effects? 3

Brain & heart (highest demand for oxygen)
Congestion, edema and hemorrhage

2

What is the organ most affected by NOx, ozone? How?

Lungs
Forms ROS, disrupts lipid membranes, esp. alveoli

3

What is the effect of Sulfur dioxide?

Initially Upper airways
Then Lower airways
Mostly cardiopulmonary

4

What are the effects of Arsenic in 5 important organs?
Where does it accumulate in short and long term?

- Cardiovasc: vasodilation, hypotension, arrhythmias, CHF
- GI tract
- Kidneys
- Nervous system
- Skin

Short term accum: major organs
Long term accum: integument due to affinity to keratin, bone and teeth

5

What are the 2 organs affected by Cadmium? What is its effect?

- Kidneys: affecting Vit D conversion, leads to serious bone loss (osteoporosis and osteomalacia)
- Liver

6

Lead

- Storage in bones
- Crosses BBB, affects IQ and behavior

Acute exposure: encephalopathy, nephropathy, GI effects

Chronic exposure: repro, HTN, gout, *anemia*, CNS, neuropathy

7

Mercury

- Cardiovasc
- Kidney
- CNS (including prenatal exposure), sensory loss, ataxia, disequilibrium

8

Cyclodienes (halogenated insecticides)

- CNS stimulant by inhibiting GABA, causes convulsions and jerking
- GI

9

PCBs: halogenated industrial stuff

- Immunosuppression
- Chloracne
- Respiratory
- Liver enzymes
- GI

10

Brominated flame retardants: PBDEs

Tons of effects in rodents, but not sure how it impacts human health...yet. Possibly carcinogenic

11

Chromium

Stainless steel
Hexavalent form is ok, but metabolized to trivalent. Trivalent form generates ROS, damages DNA, *carcinogenic*