DNA and RNA (Chapter 10) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DNA and RNA (Chapter 10) Deck (24):
1

Genetic Material Must:

1. Contain, in a stable form, the information about an organism's cell structure, function, development, and reproduction

2. Be able to be expressed
-expressed: how we use the information

3. Replicate accurately so that the progeny cells have the same information as the parent cells.

4. Be capable of change
-without change, organisms are incapable of variation and adaptation.

2

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

DNA

3

Ribonucleic Acid

RNA

4

Have double stranded DNA as the genetic material

All known prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and a few viruses

5

Any molecule that serves as the genetic material must have the following characteristics except:
a. the ability to be replicated
b. the ability to store information
c. the ability to directly influence the development of traits
d. the ability to express information
e. the potential to be changed via mutation

c. the ability to directly influence the development of traits

6

-X-ray diffraction
-Chargaff's Rule
-Known: polymer of nucleotides
-Knowledge of chemistry

Watson and Crick's basis of designing a molecular structure of DNA

7

Nitrogenous Base + 5 Carbon Sugar
RNA

Nucleoside

8

Nitrogenous Base + 5 Carbon sugar + phosphate group
DNA

Nucleotide

9

Bond between nitrogenous base and 5 carbon sugar

glycosidic bond

10

where on the nucleoside indicates it will be part of RNA?

the OH/carbon 2'

11

Has two OH groups on 5 Carbon sugar

RNA

12

Has only one OH on 5 carbon sugar

DNA

13

Cytosine, Uracil, and Thymine

Pyrimidine Ring (smaller)

14

Adenine, Guanine

Purine Ring (larger)

15

Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil, and Thymine

Nitrogenous bases

16

States that there is a 1:1 Ratio of A:T and G:C
A=T
G=-(triple bond)C

Chargaff's Rule

17

Concluded that DNA is helical and that there are distinct regularities.

Franklin and Wilkins

18

360 degree turn = 3.4 nm/ 34 angstroms
Between bases = .34nm/ 3.4 angstroms
total gives 10bps/turn

Periodicites

19

5'--> 3': forwards
3'--> 5': backwards
3' to 5' phosphodiester bonds form the backbone

The Model

20

-Formed because of the angle of the glycosidic bond
-Right handed double helix

Model of B-DNA

21

Turns in right-handed direction no matter which end is being examined.

Right-Handed DNA

22

Major groove vs. Minor groove

Proteins can recognize the shape of the bases/the bonding potentials
-proteins recognize the major groove rather than the minor groove because of its size.
Both wind along the length of the molecule in an alternating pattern

23

In a polynucleotide, the individual nucleotides are linked by bonds between:
a. nitrogenous bases
b. sugar and phosphate
c. sugars
d. phosphates
e. nitrogenous base and sugar

b. sugar and phosphate

24

Which of the following is not included in the Watson-Crick model of DNA structure?
a. It is composed of two strands
b. The two strands are held together by H bonds between nitrogenous bases.
c. The strands run parallel.
d. The resultant helix is right-handed

c. The strands run parallel.