Flashcards in Translation Deck (35):
Goal of translation is?
To make polypeptides from mRNA sequence
-The codons of an mRNA that are read sequentially to specify amino acids
Open Reading Frame
Characteristics of the genetic code
Each mRNA codon consists of 3 nucleotides
The mRNA is read 3 nucleotides at a time without skipping any nucleotides
The mRNA is read in successive groups of 3 nucleotides
All known organisms have the same genetic language
More than 1 codon occurs for each amino acid, 3rd nucleotide might differ
One codon specifies one amino acid
Calls for beginning and end of an "ORF"
Start and stop signals
The tendency of an organism to use a certain codon for 1 amino acid more than others
Basepairing between tRNA anticodon and mRNA codon doesn't necessarily follow complementary basepairing ules at the 3rd nucleotide
Why is Wobble advantageous?
Because the cell only needs to have 1 tRNA for leucine
The genetic code is ________, meaning that an amino acid may be coded by more than one codon.
Polymers of amino acids that are connected by peptide bonds
Amino end (at 5')
Carboxyl end (at 3')
Covalent bond between amino acids
Catalyzes the peptide bond formation by dehydration
_______ along the polypeptide determine how it will fold and thus function.
Have unique features governed by their R group
Dictates how a protein is folded and thus function
Amino acid sequence
Although some amino acids may look similar, small changes in the amino acid sequence can have darastic effects on protein and phenotype
Amino acid sequence
Nonpolar: Hydrophobic Amino Acids
Polar: Hydrophilic Amino Acids
Polar: (+) charge BASIC
Polar: (-) charge ACIDIC
The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
The folding and twisting of a single polypeptide chain into a variety of forms (alpha helix, beta-pleated sheet)
The specific 3D folding of a polypeptide chain
The aggregate of polypeptide chains that make up a multisubunit protein
Multiple ribosomes translating the same mRNA concurrently,
-In both proks and euks