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Flashcards in Translation Deck (35):
1

Goal of translation is?

To make polypeptides from mRNA sequence

2

"ORF"
-The codons of an mRNA that are read sequentially to specify amino acids

Open Reading Frame

3

Characteristics of the genetic code

-Triplet Code
-Continuous
-Nonoverlapping
-Universal
-Redundant/degenerate
-Unambiguous
-Codon bias
-Wobble

4

Each mRNA codon consists of 3 nucleotides

Triplet Code

5

The mRNA is read 3 nucleotides at a time without skipping any nucleotides

Continuous

6

The mRNA is read in successive groups of 3 nucleotides

Nonoverlapping

7

All known organisms have the same genetic language

Universal

8

More than 1 codon occurs for each amino acid, 3rd nucleotide might differ

Redundant/degenerate

9

One codon specifies one amino acid

Unambiguous

10

Calls for beginning and end of an "ORF"

Start and stop signals

11

AUG=?

Start codon

12

Stop codons=?

nonsense codons

13

The tendency of an organism to use a certain codon for 1 amino acid more than others

Codon bias

14

Basepairing between tRNA anticodon and mRNA codon doesn't necessarily follow complementary basepairing ules at the 3rd nucleotide

Wobble

15

Why is Wobble advantageous?

Because the cell only needs to have 1 tRNA for leucine
-energetically favorable

16

The genetic code is ________, meaning that an amino acid may be coded by more than one codon.
a. unambiguous
b. degenerate
c. commaless
d. universal
e. nonoverlapping

b. degenerate

17

Polymers of amino acids that are connected by peptide bonds

Polypeptides

18

N

Amino end (at 5')

19

C

Carboxyl end (at 3')

20

Covalent bond between amino acids

Peptide bond

21

Catalyzes the peptide bond formation by dehydration

Ribosome

22

_______ along the polypeptide determine how it will fold and thus function.

R groups

23

Have unique features governed by their R group

Amino acids

24

Dictates how a protein is folded and thus function

Amino acid sequence

25

Although some amino acids may look similar, small changes in the amino acid sequence can have darastic effects on protein and phenotype

Amino acid sequence

26

Nonpolar: Hydrophobic Amino Acids

Alanine, Methionine
Valine, Phenylalanine
Leucine, Tryptophan
Isoleucine, Proline

27

Polar: Hydrophilic Amino Acids

Glycine, Aspargenine
Serine, Glutamine
Threonine Tyrosine
Cysteine

28

Polar: (+) charge BASIC

Lysine
Arginine
Histidine

29

Polar: (-) charge ACIDIC

Aspartic Acid
Glutamic Acid

30

The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain

Primary structure

31

The folding and twisting of a single polypeptide chain into a variety of forms (alpha helix, beta-pleated sheet)

Secondary structure

32

The specific 3D folding of a polypeptide chain

Tertiary structure

33

The aggregate of polypeptide chains that make up a multisubunit protein

Quaternary structure

34

Multiple ribosomes translating the same mRNA concurrently,
-In both proks and euks

Polyribosomes (polysomes)

35

Co-transcription and translation in ________.

Prokaryotes