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Flashcards in Mutations Deck (31):
1

Result in partially or fully non functional gene product
-known as a null mutation

Loss of function mutation

2

Causes the gene product to have more activity
ex. cancer cells

Gain of function mutiation

3

Drives evolution through adaptation, not always bad

Mutation

4

Is the creation of mutations

Mutagenesis

5

Mistakes during replication
Base can exist in 2 isomers with different base pairing properties
ex. G=A

Spontaneous Mutations

6

Caused by mutagens:
-chemcals
-environmental factors that cause mutation
*Change covalent bonds

Induced mutations

7

Mutagens:

-Base modifying agents
-intercalating agents
-base analogs

8

Insert themselves between base pairs

Intercalating agents

9

Look like DNA and nucleotides, so they get translated

Base analogs

10

Two major classes of mutations

1. Somatic Mutation
2. Germ-line Mutation

11

Mutation not passed on to next generation
ex. moles

Somatic Mutation

12

Transmitted to future generations
-progeny has the mutation in both somatic and germ-line cells.

Germ-line Mutation

13

Which of the following categories of mutation is not possible to pass to offspring?
a. silent
b. somatic
c. frameshift
d. induced
e. x-linked

b. somatic

14

Types of mutations

1. Base-pair substitutions
2. Base pair insertions/deletions

15

Mutation that changes 1 basepair to another basepair

Base pair substitution

16

Intercalating; Mutation that adds or removes a basepair

Base pair insertion/deletion

17

2 Major types of base pair substitutions

1. Transition mutation
2. Transversion mutation

18

Mutation that changes one purine-pyrimidine basepair to another purine-pyrimidine basepair.

Transition Mutation

19

Mutation that changes one purine-pyrimidine basepair to a pyrimidine-purine basepair or vice versa.

Transversion mutation

20

A change in a codon so that a different amino acid is added to the polypeptide
-phenotypic change depends on severity of mutation

Missense Mutation

21

Change in structure=change in function

phenotypic result

22

Change from a codon that indicates an amino acid to a stop codon.

Nonsense Mutation

23

Changing 1 codon for 1 amino acid to another codon for the same amino acid

Silent Mutation

24

Change from an amino acid to another amino acid with similar chemical properties
-type of transition mutation

Neutral Mutation

25

-A insertion/deletion has changed the frame
-Shift in the reading frame so that missense or stop results

Frameshift Mutation

26

-Area of genome has 3 nucleotides repeated many times in a row.
-If happens in a coding region, long stretches of the same amino acid repeats itself
-Problem: sticks to each other and cannot do anything.

Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion

27

Change wild type allele to mutant allele

Forward Mutation

28

Change to premutation state
-changes mutant allele so that phenotype becomes more like wild type

Reverse Mutation

29

A mutation that masks original phenotype
-mutation at a different site than the original mutation

Suppressor mutations

30

Within the same gene
-If an insertion occurs, a deletion farther down will rest the frameshift.

Intra genic suppressors

31

Mutation in another gene

Inter genic suppresors