Flashcards in Mutations Deck (31):
Result in partially or fully non functional gene product
-known as a null mutation
Loss of function mutation
Causes the gene product to have more activity
ex. cancer cells
Gain of function mutiation
Drives evolution through adaptation, not always bad
Is the creation of mutations
Mistakes during replication
Base can exist in 2 isomers with different base pairing properties
Caused by mutagens:
-environmental factors that cause mutation
*Change covalent bonds
-Base modifying agents
Insert themselves between base pairs
Look like DNA and nucleotides, so they get translated
Two major classes of mutations
1. Somatic Mutation
2. Germ-line Mutation
Mutation not passed on to next generation
Transmitted to future generations
-progeny has the mutation in both somatic and germ-line cells.
Which of the following categories of mutation is not possible to pass to offspring?
Types of mutations
1. Base-pair substitutions
2. Base pair insertions/deletions
Mutation that changes 1 basepair to another basepair
Base pair substitution
Intercalating; Mutation that adds or removes a basepair
Base pair insertion/deletion
2 Major types of base pair substitutions
1. Transition mutation
2. Transversion mutation
Mutation that changes one purine-pyrimidine basepair to another purine-pyrimidine basepair.
Mutation that changes one purine-pyrimidine basepair to a pyrimidine-purine basepair or vice versa.
A change in a codon so that a different amino acid is added to the polypeptide
-phenotypic change depends on severity of mutation
Change in structure=change in function
Change from a codon that indicates an amino acid to a stop codon.
Changing 1 codon for 1 amino acid to another codon for the same amino acid
Change from an amino acid to another amino acid with similar chemical properties
-type of transition mutation
-A insertion/deletion has changed the frame
-Shift in the reading frame so that missense or stop results
-Area of genome has 3 nucleotides repeated many times in a row.
-If happens in a coding region, long stretches of the same amino acid repeats itself
-Problem: sticks to each other and cannot do anything.
Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion
Change wild type allele to mutant allele
Change to premutation state
-changes mutant allele so that phenotype becomes more like wild type
A mutation that masks original phenotype
-mutation at a different site than the original mutation
Within the same gene
-If an insertion occurs, a deletion farther down will rest the frameshift.
Intra genic suppressors