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Flashcards in Dog Social Behaviour Deck (14):

According to research based on the ancestral species, how do dogs live?

- Can be pack or solitary or pairs
- family based social system
- not necessarily 'cooperative' hunters but may hunt in groups
- young choose to remain with pack to help parents and do not breed themselves - co-op breeding
> counterintuitive genetically
> kin selection means genetics of new siblings still v similar to own so still feasible genetically
> allows life skills to be learnt ^ survival rate


What was most research on "wolf behaviour" done on?

Zoos - artifical packs
- incompatible and unknown individuals
> separate dominance hierarchies for male and females
> aggression/submission based hierarchy
NOT a true representation of social interactions!


Which animals make a better model for ethological behaviour of dogs? What have studies shown in these?

Feral dog packs eg. In India
- dogs have freedom to choose pack members
- are genetically more similar to each other
- packs are free ranging, unsupervised and BREED
- packs form around male/female pairs
- communal territory usually based around food sources
- little discernible hierarchy except adults>young


Why is research on feral dog packs limited?

Culling eg. India


What has been found about breeding in feral dog packs?

All adult females breed
- competition between males from several packs for oestrus females
- similar to primitive canids
> NB: would not happen in wolves, would fight off other males
- females leave the pack to rear litter so pups not attacked
- rarely cooperative breeding occours
- LITTLE relationship between dominance aggression and reproductive success


How do the social relationships of pet dogs work?

Little function of dominance in reproduction/hunting
- hierachy (or apparent hierachy) probably based on activity levels ie. youngest male adult is alpha
- NO evidence that dominance is a "goal"
> contrary to many training regimes


How does behaviour differ between artificial wolf packs and natural wolf packs?

- artificial - aggression greatest between breeding and subordinate females
- natural - most behaviour submissive/affiliative
> licking muzzle - cue to regurgitate food
> becomes ritualised to reinforce family bonds
- in zoo pack means "don't hurt me!"


Why is negative reinforcement in training bad? Eg. of trainer?

Ceasar milan
- weakens human/animal bond


Would electric shock collars ever be advocated?

Only extreme situation where dogs life is at risk eg. sheep chasing


What does the RHP model explain?

Interactinos between dogs - RHP is based on strength (although dogs do not respect this, especially wrt size)
experience and agonistic behaviour (themselves v the other dog, who wants it more? intentions)
- very subjective value of resource, but fits observations
- compare RHP (would they win the encounter) to V (how much do they want it)
> Applies to first encounters as well as established relationships
> also applicable to dog/human interactions


Why is dominance not relevant to many dog encounters?

Relies on previous interactions - is not applicable to first time encounters


Do dogs differentiate between humans and conspecifics?

YES! - are more cooperative with people


What is dominance aggression usually actually caused by?

- usually become very affiliative after aggressive outburst
- not attempting to manipulate people!
"Dominance" over people is usually just a learned response that reduces cause of negative emotion, usually situation specific


How do dogs interact differently with humans and other dogs?

If 2 dogs given two toys will take one each and leave
If human and dog given two toys will pick one up and make you play