Flashcards in Dog Social Behaviour Deck (14):
According to research based on the ancestral species, how do dogs live?
- Can be pack or solitary or pairs
- family based social system
- not necessarily 'cooperative' hunters but may hunt in groups
- young choose to remain with pack to help parents and do not breed themselves - co-op breeding
> counterintuitive genetically
> kin selection means genetics of new siblings still v similar to own so still feasible genetically
> allows life skills to be learnt ^ survival rate
What was most research on "wolf behaviour" done on?
Zoos - artifical packs
- incompatible and unknown individuals
> separate dominance hierarchies for male and females
> aggression/submission based hierarchy
NOT a true representation of social interactions!
Which animals make a better model for ethological behaviour of dogs? What have studies shown in these?
Feral dog packs eg. In India
- dogs have freedom to choose pack members
- are genetically more similar to each other
- packs are free ranging, unsupervised and BREED
- packs form around male/female pairs
- communal territory usually based around food sources
- little discernible hierarchy except adults>young
Why is research on feral dog packs limited?
Culling eg. India
What has been found about breeding in feral dog packs?
All adult females breed
- competition between males from several packs for oestrus females
- similar to primitive canids
> NB: would not happen in wolves, would fight off other males
- females leave the pack to rear litter so pups not attacked
- rarely cooperative breeding occours
- LITTLE relationship between dominance aggression and reproductive success
How do the social relationships of pet dogs work?
Little function of dominance in reproduction/hunting
- hierachy (or apparent hierachy) probably based on activity levels ie. youngest male adult is alpha
- NO evidence that dominance is a "goal"
> contrary to many training regimes
How does behaviour differ between artificial wolf packs and natural wolf packs?
- artificial - aggression greatest between breeding and subordinate females
- natural - most behaviour submissive/affiliative
> licking muzzle - cue to regurgitate food
> becomes ritualised to reinforce family bonds
- in zoo pack means "don't hurt me!"
Why is negative reinforcement in training bad? Eg. of trainer?
- weakens human/animal bond
Would electric shock collars ever be advocated?
Only extreme situation where dogs life is at risk eg. sheep chasing
What does the RHP model explain?
Interactinos between dogs - RHP is based on strength (although dogs do not respect this, especially wrt size)
experience and agonistic behaviour (themselves v the other dog, who wants it more? intentions)
- very subjective value of resource, but fits observations
- compare RHP (would they win the encounter) to V (how much do they want it)
> Applies to first encounters as well as established relationships
> also applicable to dog/human interactions
Why is dominance not relevant to many dog encounters?
Relies on previous interactions - is not applicable to first time encounters
Do dogs differentiate between humans and conspecifics?
YES! - are more cooperative with people
What is dominance aggression usually actually caused by?
- usually become very affiliative after aggressive outburst
- not attempting to manipulate people!
"Dominance" over people is usually just a learned response that reduces cause of negative emotion, usually situation specific