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Flashcards in Use of Pheremones Deck (39):

What were pheromones ORIGINALLY described as?

Karlson and Luscher 1959 - Substances secreted to the outside of an individual and received by a second individual of the same species in which they release a specific reaction


How are pheromones now defined?

Brennan and Jeverne 2004 - Chemical substances that convey information among individuals of the same species


What are the two types of pheromone?

- Releaser
Substances that elicit immediate behavioural effects eg. alarm signals
- Primer
Cause long term changes in neuroendocrine or developmental state eg. ovulation


What functions do pheromones have?

Signalling social status
Locating food
Alarm signalling
Predator detection


What two sensory systems are capable of transducing pheremonal information?

Main olfatory system
Vomeronasal organ
- rabbit kittens without a mature VNO show response to milk pheromone


What is another name for the vomeronasal organ?

Jacobson's organ


What is the vomeronasal organ? Which species possess it?

Many mammals but NOT higher primates
- blind ended mucous filled tube on the floor of the nasal cavity
- connects oral and nasal cavity via small ducts
- sensitive to small quantities of odour


Where do pheromone receptor neurones run to?

Accessory olfactory bulb
Nerve pojectinos to the limbic system
- influence hormones production from the hypothalamus
- modulations in reactive state


How may the VNO be exposed?

Horses, cats and rabbits - Flehmen
Cats and dogs -tonguing and panting


Is the effect of pheromones innate or learnt?

Initially appeared innate and stereotyped, but learnt component shown to be present
eg. Kindermann 1994 - nipple searching behaviour in rabbit pups, single exposure to artificial scent during suckling sufficient to elicit this behaviour


Which body secretions contain pheromones?

Any and all!
Specialised glands int he skin and mucous membranes especially -
Anal sacs
Supra caudal glands
Peri-oral glands (cheek, chin and lips, in dogs the ears)
Podal glands (pads and itnerdigital region)
Mammary region - appeasines


What are appeasins?

Have a comforting effect on neonates - secreted from the mammary glands


What are the 3 groups of cat pheromones?

1. Urine and scratching
2. Alarm marks from anal glands and podal glands
3. Facial and flank pheremones


What is F1 used for?

Used in core territory - associated with positive emotional state ?


What is F2 used for?

Sexual displays


What is F3 used for?

Known and unknown


What is F4 used for?

Marking members of social group (scent profile)


When and why does urine spraying occur?

Sexual signal, maintainence of distance between cats (territory marking,) associated with negative emotional states ?


When did development of synthetic pheromones begin?

Early 1990s - pheremonotherapy began


Which synthetic pheromones are produced commercially?

2 for cats - F3 feliway (spray or diffuser) and F4 felifriend (spray only)
1 for dogs - DAP (Dog appeasing pheromone) or ADAPTIL (spray, plug in diffuser, collar)
1 for horses - EAP (Intra-nasal spray - stressful?!) Pherocalm


Should there be cross species effecs of these pheromone products?

NO owing to the definition of a pheromone


Why has F4 felifriend not been very effective?

Used to "cover up" people the cats should be fearful of eg. vets leading to ^ anxiety as been fooled into thinking they should be a nice person, learning that they cannot trust the smells any more


Give a study supporting use of F3 Feliway diffusers

Mills and Mills 2001 Decreased urine spraying without any behavioural therapy concurrently


When is F3 Feliway most useful?

Novel Environments where no negative association has been formed, eg. hospitalisation - allowing less anxiety. Calming effect PRIOR to catheterisation. Holiday homes - decreased urination and ate sooner
Transport - spray car with F3 -> less urination, salivation, vocalisation and agitation


Why may F3 not be effective against spraying/urination?

v predictability as can't tell which places are good/bad - usually leading to ^ spraying to due anxiety
- Behaviour and environmental modification should be necessary


How may spraying be treated?

Clean mark with a biological agent/alcohol - NOT detergent (may have ammonia, smells like urine, ^ spraying)
Change perception of area using F3
Get rid of environmental stressors


What uses other than spraying may F3 be used for?

General anxiety - people/nosies/FLUTD/novel environments


What would be a superior alternative to F4 Felifriend when introducing two new cats?

Scent swapping using damp cloths


Give some studies surrounding use of F4 Felifriend

Patel 2008 - v anxiety during prelim exam but no difference during vet exam
Kakuma and Bradshaw 2001 - elated more quickly in shelter setting, placebo controlled


Where is DAP (Dog Appeasing Pheremone) isolate from?

Intra-mammary sulcus 3-4 days after whelping
- involved in recognition and attachment formation between mother and pups


What is DAP suggested for use in?

Separatino anxiety
Noise phobias
Car sickness


Is DAP thought to be useful?

Yes, but no placebo in trials and only ever used in conjunction with behaviour therapy etc. as ethical to withhold
Apears useful though
- research limited
>Taylor and Mills 2007 - puppies cried for less days (though "normal" number unusually high?!
>Tod 2005 - Barking amplitude and frequency decreased (though blocks in different places)
>Mills 2004 - DAP used on aggressive dogs in vets, ^ relaxed behaviours and v anxiety


What did the Mills 2004 study lead to?

Vet directive that all rehoming dogs must have DAP collars - scrapped as couldn't get collars on half the dogs! Wasted resources - bad knee jerk reaction decision


What is Pherocalm (EAP) indicated for use in?

New environments


What is the evidence for EAP?

Placebo controlled blinded study - willingness to walk through a curtain
-> stopped less frequently, less hesitation, lower HR
Vandierendonck 2009 - Use in foals separated for first time and adults being clipped
- decreased "unrest" but no effect of physiological measures


What is the latest development in pheromones?

CAP - Cat appeasing pheromone
- no evidence for it as of yet
- one no sig difference study


Give a review paper for pheromone use

Frank 2010 JAVMA


What are the general conclusions on pheromone therapy?

Combination therapy and as an adjunct to behavioural therapy - GOOD
Require targeted use
Should not be used alternatively to things with a greater evidence base eg. benzos for fireworks night etc.


What is catnip?

Only some cats respond