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Flashcards in Learning Deck (24):

Name the two types of learning and their other names.

Classical or Pavlovian
Instrumental, Operant or Trial and Error


Define classical learning

The animal learns to predict the outcome but cannot control it.


Give an example of the stimuli involved in classical learning

Unconditioned stimulus = food
Conditioned stimulus = bell
Unconditioned/Conditioned response is the same -> Salivation


Define Instrumental learning

The animal learns to predict and control the outcome, by using new learnt behaviours.


Give an example of the stimuli and responses involved in instrumental learning

Unconditioned stimulus = temperature change (Or pavlovian conditioned predictor of temperature change eg. light or sound.)
Unconditioned response = Trial and error, investigation
Conditioned response = button press to decrease stimulus


What are the 4 laws of conditioning?

1. Contingency and contiguity - Contingency most important.
2. Learning improved by ^intensity of CS and ^value of US (eg. how loud the bell is, how good the food reward is/how aversive the temperature change is)
3. Extinction - when reinforcer is withheld the behaviour declines
4. Equipotentiality - NOT actually true. In theory all pairs of events can be associated with equal ease.


Define contingency and contiguity. Which is most important? Eg.?

Contingency = the order events occur.
Contiguity = how closely they occur.
Contingency most important - food aversion learning despite long interval between CS/US
But contiguity also important, ^interval between CS and US -> v learning.


What chemical can induce vomiting?



Give an example when equipotentiality is not true.

Mice trained to scrabble/dig/rear for food reward very successful.
Mice cannot be trained to face wash/scentmark etc. for food, as this is not a natural sequence of events so link is harder to form.


What is imprinting? What scenario may be confused with this?

Neonate learns something it has an innate desire/tendency to discover - eg. mothers identity.
Exposing foal to everything it will ever discover in the first 24 hours of life is NOT imprinting and does not work.


What is filial imprinting?

Genetic predisposition to be attracted to the head of another animal. Has a sensitive period and may be irreversible.


What are the two forms of reinforcement? Definition?

Appetitive - Increase likelihood of a behaviour
Punishment - Decrease likelihood of a behaviour


How may appetitive reinforcement be used?

Negative appetitive - removal of the appetitive reinforcement ^ behaviour
Positive appetitive - presence of the appetitive reinforcement ^ behaviour


Give examples of positive and negative appetitive reinforcement used in training.

Negative appetitive - Horse training
Positive appetitive - Dog training


How are positive and negative appetitive stimuli defined?

What may be positive for you may be negative for the dog and vice versa. eg. shouting, squirting water pistol


Why is punishment not often successful for training behaviours?

Gives no indication of what should be done.
May elicit fear and resentment


What is social learning?

Watching others carrying out a task improves response in an individual when faced with the task for the first time.


How may social learning be affected? Eg.?

Social status
Eg. Hens do not pay attention to cockerel, and social status of hen affected learning.


What stimulus in instrumental conditioning can be used as a lure to shape new behaviours?

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)


Define learning

An adaptive process that occurs as a result of experience and is rarely permanent.


How can we tell if an animal has learnt something?

Learning must be inferred from behaviour - if they don't respond correctly it may be that they haven't learnt OR that they don't want to!


Is habituation a form of association?



Define habituation

A decrease in responsiveness to a range of stimuli if they are irrelevant and don't cause harm - this is a property of the CNS


What may habituation be confused with?

Motivational change, fatigue