Flashcards in Equine Social Behaviour Deck (27):
Name 5 breeds of feral horses and their country or origin.
Przewalkski - Mongolia
Mustangs - USA
Brumbees - Australia
Konik - Poland
Exmoor - UK
Can all equids interbreed? Can they form social bonds?
Yes and yes but they prefer the company of their own groups (Proops et al, 2012)
Which two types of herd exist cooperatively in the wild?
The natal band and the bachelor herd
What is the natal band also known as?
The birth band or family group
What does the natal band consist of?
One lead mare, usually old - initiates activity, finds resources
Other younger mares - related
0 - 2 stallions may be associated with group, but will not necessary remain with them
Who leads the natal band?
The mare, unless the herd is under attack, in which case the stallion will move them
What behaviour is associated with the stallion taking charge of a natal band?
"Snaking" - moving the head and chasing to encourage the mares to move.
Are high numbers of stallions good or bad for the herd as a whole? When might this occur?
Good, increased rate of foal survival.
Stallions will be related.
How do young and old mares interact with the stallions?
Older mares bond with males - grooming, standing together even when out of saxon
Younger mares will be mated but then stallion will be aggressive towards them until they earn his respect.
At what age do foals leave the natal band?
~3years - will remain with mother and her new foal for a bit.
By 4 years will be chased off by stallions
How does foal play change over time?
1year - becomes aggressive and hierarchical
Give examples of courtship behaviour in horses.
Front leg strike
What are pair bonds? Which species bond especially strongly?
Social bonds between similar age or rank individuals.
What is the bachelor herds comprised of?
Colts who have left the natal band
- know where local natal ands are
- companionship and social interaction as well as competition between males
What is the difference between a band and a herd?
Bands (~30) may join together to form herds (>600) but horses will remain in their bands and are unlikely to form social bonds with animals from another group
How may allogrooming be used to secure friendship?
Intervention by a third party if someone else is alogrooming with their "friend"
- usually causes cessation of behaviour
- may be taken over by intervener or continued by original dyad
(Van Dierendonck et al 2009)
How is reconciliation after fighting usually performed?
Triadic - ie. a third horse will interact with one of the fighters immediately after (usually)
What organ does the Flehmen response involve?
When is Flehmen performed?
Courtship and reproduction
Any time trying to smell something
Visually, what can horses interpret well and not so well?
Very acute movement detection
Small details not so good
When may flattened ears not be associated with fear or aggression?
Very closely bonded paris
What is champing?
"snapping" display - appeasement or submission
performed by foals and may be continued into adulthood
How does fighting differ between sexes?
Mares kick backwards, stallions fight with teeth and front legs
What is box weaning? What age does it occur at?
~5 months - claims to make foals braver or more accepting of humans
- bad welfare!!!
At what age would foals be weaned in the wild?
What is paddock weaning?
A group of foals are weaned together in the field - slightly better welfare.